DIRECT- INSTRUCTION MODEL
Presented by : Nada Salem Abisamra
1) We have to teach students
2) Five habits of mind : for teachers
3) Five habits of mind : for students
4) Models for teaching
5) Elements to consider
6) Delivering an effective direct-instruction lesson
7) Direct-instruction model : Lesson plan format
8) Lesson Plan : Direct-Instruction Model
9) Two approaches to teaching concepts
10) Strategies for instruction
11) Teaching philosophy
12) Goals for teachers
We Have to Teach Students to
Think for themselves,
Fulfill their potential,
Gain self esteem,
Be ready for this productive world .
Five Habits of Mind : For Teachers
Developing teachers must learn
to consider these Five Habits of Mind
in order to make defensible decisions in their practice.
The habits of mind interact, so there is no set order in which they must be considered.
Teachers need to think about :
The Learners with whom they are working;
How does the learner’s background , experience , and mode of
learning relate to the teacher’s decision making ?
The Contexts of the classroom, school
What impact does the physical , psychological , and social
environment have on instructional decision making ?
The Curriculum they will be teaching;
What are the implications of the selection of content ,
materials , and experiences ?
The Methods of Instruction they will
What models , strategies , and techniques for teaching and
learning will match the characteristics of the learners and
instructional goals ?
How they will Assess the learning that
How can we observe and make judgments about student
learning in fair , accurate ways that also improve instruction ?
Habits of Mind : For Students
There are Five Habits of Mind we should develop in our students.
Students need to ask themselves :
- How do we know what we think we know?
What's our evidence? How credible is it?
- Whose viewpoint are we hearing, reading,
What other viewpoints might there be if we changed our
position , our perspective?
- How is one thing connected to another?
Is there a pattern here?
- How else might it have been?
What if? Supposing that?
- What difference does it make?
There are many models for teaching the
disciplines and/or ideas of humankind.
There may be as many models for teaching these structures as there are people.
The primary purpose of this course is
to promote as many introductory
experiences, with well established models as possible. As we have these
experiences , we can realize that some models are more to our liking than others
and this is perhaps due to the way we learn best.
Each one of us has a pattern for learning and this pattern has evolved from our
Therefore , each student-teacher has
to learn as many different models for
teaching as he or she can , so that a greater pedagogical success can evolve .
Whatever model of teaching or method
of instruction we use, there are certain elements we
ought to consider.
A model of teaching makes sense because
it is appropriate for the objective or goal of the
For example, it makes no sense to choose the presentation (lecture) model to get students to
explore their feelings about an issue.
Thus, models are not interchangeable--they make sense only if they
contribute to what we want students to learn.
Each model has implications for how
we should structure the classroom environment, which
goes beyond a seating arrangement. We can easily lecture to kids sitting passively in rows; the
same arrangement (and passivity) would be deadly to a cooperative learning activity.
So, we need to consider the implications for our classroom in using a given model.
Finally, each model has a syntax, or
series of steps to follow.
For example, when we teach a direct instruction lesson (which is appropriate for teaching
procedural knowledge or skills), we have to be certain to include guided practice.
As we learn models, we need to examine the elements and note the distinctions among them.
an Effective DIRECT INSTRUCTION Lesson
This is sometimes called direct teaching.
It's probably what most people think of when they
imagine a teacher.
The teacher gives a clear explanation of how to do something , and the student observes,
practices, and eventually masters this skill.
One advantage of the direct instruction model over the presentation model (lecture )is that there
is a built-in guarantee that students will be doing something.
Otherwise, the models are fairly similar.
Objectives : Direct instruction is appropriate
for teaching a procedural objective, such as
having students be able to diagram a sentence, conduct an experiment, create a piece of pottery,
and so on.
Syntax : Recommended order for developing
a good direct instruction lesson:
1. Provide an anticipatory set.
2. Communicate our objectives (through a statement, question, or
some other means). We might tell them what they will be able to
do at the end of the lesson that they cannot do now.
3. Demonstrate the skill. This means we have to do it. If we are
teaching them to throw a pot (art), then we need to walk them
through the steps, articulating what we do as we go.
As a rule, it is more effective if we list those steps for the
students (on the board, in a handout, etc.).
4. Provide guided practice. This means the students try out what
we've taught them, but they do so under our careful guidance.
WE walk around to monitor what they are doing.
Remember, if they practice it wrong, they'll have a much more
difficult time learning the right way.
5. Check for understanding and provide feedback. They need to
know if they are doing it right.
6. Provide for independent practice. This generally means
homework, though sometimes this is not possible, due to
7. Provide closure. Review the steps of the process.
Environment : Like presentation, this
is a teacher-dominated form of instruction. The
environment reflects this, though the students' practicing is a refreshing break from the teacher
Effects : Students should be able to
DO whatever procedure you have taught them.
A secondary effect is that you instill confidence in students.
They leave a good direct instruction lesson with a sense of confidence that they can do
Lesson Plan Format
Stated in behavioral terms - “ by (insert time or date), the learner will (insert verb phrase
showing what the student will do) with (insert percentage %) accuracy, as measured by (insert
evaluation format). ”
Prepares student for the lesson ,
Refers to knowledge learned in previous lessons ,
Previews new lesson , often with a question.
The Objective is often directly stated to the students.
Instruction presented by the teacher to the whole class or
group - actual teaching .
Students try out information presented in the lesson under the
direct guidance of the teacher.
Immediate feedback is given to the student
Students practice information in larger blocks, either in the
presence of the teacher, with more at home (homework).
Feedback on correctness should follow as close to the lesson as
Teacher and students restate the objective
Evaluation of the materials completed or discussion related to
Planning the Lesson
1.1 Topic “Conditional Sentences”
a - Content :
Students will know the difference between the
indicative and conditional moods .
Students will be able to use the verbs in conditional
sentences ( 1st and 2nd types ) accurately .
Students will be able to justify the use of the tenses
in conditional sentences (1st and 2nd types ).
b - Process :
Students will observe then answer questions , give
examples , practice , correct ….
They will be actively involved and will assume more
responsibility as the lesson progresses .
1.3 Prerequisite Knowledge
Indicative Mood with all its tenses
+ Irregular Verbs
1.4 Selected Examples
1) If you study you (will ) succeed
2) If you studied you would succeed
[ In addition to the examples the students could give]
- Implementing the Lesson
[ I would like first to mention a few things :
Course Name = English as a third language
Grade = 10th
Time = 100 minutes
Number of students = 20 ]
2.1 Lesson Introduction
- “Good morning everyone , how are you
today ? Are you ready to start the lesson ?”
- “Yes miss !”said the students all together .
- “ Excellent ! Then let’s start ……
As you recall , we have been studying the tenses in the indicative mood for the last two months ; who can tell me what this mood expresses ? …… Tony ?”
- “ REALITY !” said Tony enthusiastically .
- “ Good , Tony , and how do you know that ?”
- “ I know it because when I say for example ‘I am talking now ’,it is an action in the indicative mood and it expresses something that is really happening .”
- “ Very well …What else can you tell me about this mood ? …… Sonia?”
- “ You taught us to think logically when we use the tenses ”.
- “ Yes, I really did , good Sonia ! … You know , once you study the tenses and the different moods logically , you find them very easy and you never forget them .
Now , let’s switch to something else : it’s the Conditional Mood and, especially , its application in Conditional sentences .
I can tell you something , once you have grasped this mood and its use , you will be able to avoid all those grammar mistakes in your essays !”
2.2 Lesson Presentation
- “ I would like to start with something
very important : unlike the indicative mood , the conditional mood does
not express reality ! It expresses a condition _ you can tell from its
( Here the teacher goes to the chalkboard and writes : )
e.g. If you study you will succeed
What do you need in order to succeed ? You need to study ; so studying is the condition for success to take place .
Now about the sentences ; there are three major types of conditional sentences ……today we’ll study the first two .
Who can give me the first one ?………Yes , Mira ?”
- “ You’ve just given it to us , miss ,‘If you study you will succeed.’ ”
- “ So we can say that : if + present => future
- “ Miss, can’t we say ‘If you study you succeed ’ ?” asked Marcel .
- “ Yes we can , Marcel , but there will be a slight change in meaning . When you say ‘If you study you will succeed ’, you are talking to someone specific , and the time is specific ; but when you use the simple present tense in the main clause , you are talking in general ; the time is not specific .
Now what about the second type , do you know anything about it? ……… Cynthia ?
- “ If + Simple Past => would + ……”
- “ …Incomplete infinitive ! ” interrupted Raja .
- “ Good Raja , but you should have let Cynthia answer ! ”
So the example will be ‘ If you studied you would succeed ’.
What is the difference between the first and second types …………
- “ The action in the first one is in the present while the action in the second one is in the past . ”
- “ This is what I want you to pay attention to ! No , contrary to what everyone usually thinks , when we use the simple past in the conditional sentences the action always and only refers to the present tense .
So what is the difference between the two types ?
The difference , dear students , is that in the first type we don’t know anything about the person we are talking to , about the fact , while in the second type we know that the fact is different from the if clause .
(The teacher goes back to the board and writes )
1) If you study (now) you will succeed
[what is implied here is that I don’t know anything about
the fact ]
2) If you studied (now) you would succeed
[what is implied here is that I know you are not
studying ,the fact is different from the If clause ]
=> BUT you are not studying ”
2.3 Guided Practice + Feedback
- “O.K. now , let’s practice whatever
we’ve just learned .
[ The teacher gives them a handout on which there is an exercise on conditional sentences : 1st and 2nd types ; they have to put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense and to justify the use of the tenses .
While the students are doing the exercise , the teacher passes by them , answers questions and corrects in case there is something wrong .
Then they correct the exercise all together . ]
- “ Now that you have practised the
use of the first two types of conditional sentences , how can you summarize
what you’ve learned today ………Samir ?
- “ We have learned the conditional mood , what it expresses , and the first two types of conditional sentences .”
- “ What is the most important difference between these two types …………Salim ?”
-“ The fact in the second type is different from the If clause while in the first one we don’t know anything about it .”
- “ Does anyone of the two types refer to the past ……… Aileen ?”
- “ No , both of them refer to the present .”
- “ Excellent , you seem to have understood everything . Now so that you consolidate whatever you’ve learnt , I will give you a homework assignment .”
2.5 Independent Practice
[ The teacher gives the students
a homework assignment to promote retention , automaticity and transfer
Exercise : ‘Finish the following sentences using the first or second types of conditional sentences , then justify the use of the type .’ ]
3 - Assessing Student Learning :
Individual Test :
Write a paragraph of 15 lines (150 words) on the following
“ What would you do if you had only one year to live?”
Two Approaches to Teaching Concepts
strategy : (Inductive, Concept-Attainment and Integrative
1.Present the best example first, name it, and ask questions to
elicit the attributes students think might be important to the
2.Present a second example for comparison and have students
compare the two to test which attributes are criterial and
which are noncriterial.
3.Present additional examples and nonexamples, engaging
students in discussion of the attributes and sorting the
noncriterial from the criterial.
4.List the attributes and ask questions intended to have the
students verbalize the concept rule or definition (X are ___?).
5.Assess learning by presenting new examples and nonexamples
and seeing if students can sort them into the proper categories.
6.Assess by introducing a related concepts and comparing it to
that just learned.
[Note: this process can also begin with a problem, that is, a position of psychological doubt, that moves students to seek an answer to the puzzle or mystery posed.]
strategy : ( Direct-Instruction and Lecture-Discussion Models
1.Present the best example first, define it, and list the attributes
most important to the concept.
2.Present a second example for comparison and indicate which
attributes are criterial and which are noncriterial.
3.Provide additional examples and through practice and
feedback, ensure that students understand criterial and
4.Assess learning in the same way as above.
Strategies for Instruction
There can always be a range of abilities in the same class,
and sometimes that range is wide.
Instruction has to be such that students at all levels of
thinking can be included , and the materials and activities
must be open ended to enable all students to participate.
Tips on including all students in class work:
1) Teaching Techniques
- Speak slowly and clearly, but
- Make the consequences for successful performance attractive.
- Share the completion of the student's work with another adult or
peer in the class, or with an interested person outside the
- Use concrete manipulative materials to develop whole concepts.
- Photocopy notes if the student is unable to write clearly.
- Encourage peers to assist in thinking of ways in which the
student can accomplish a task: "How can Steven do this
- Invite the student to assist in lesson presentation, by
participating in brainstorming, for example, or by giving out
- Provide a print outline of the main points that the student is to
learn from listening to the lesson, reading a passage in a book,
listening to a tape, or watching a video, with blanks to be filled
in as the information is given.
- Allow the student extra time for assignments and tests.
- Recognize the length of time that the student can stay on task,
then provide opportunities for breaks and teach the student an
acceptable way to ask for a break.
- Use different color chalks and felt pens to emphasize
important points, and to make it easier for the student to find
her place on the board or paper.
- Use highly contrasting colors.
- Enlarge the print.
- Glue the steps of an operation inside the front cover of the
student's book for easy reference.
- Provide a print copy of the text so that the examples can be
done on the sheet. Often, errors occur when the student copies
and much time is used up. The examples can be enlarged if
more space is required for the answers. One or two questions
can be presented at a time to make the task less threatening.
- Provide written instructions of the steps to be followed to
complete a task.
- Provide picture instructions of the steps to be followed to
complete a task.
- Organize the student's materials ahead of time.
- When appropriate, offer a choice of two or three materials or
- Structure the sequence of activities.
2) Adapt the Goals
- Simplify the vocabulary
in the questions.
- Simplify the reading materials by highlighting the main points
in the textbook or handouts so that the student can get the
- Provide general reading on the same topic of study, but at the
appropriate reading level.
- Use the same materials and work, but teach concrete rather
than abstract concepts, or simpler rather than more
- Change the criteria for successful performance.
- Assign smaller amounts of work.
- Substitute a similar but easier task.
- Substitute a prerequisite task on the same topic.
- Clarify the task directions.
- Restate in simpler language.
- Ask a peer to repeat the directions.
- Provide only one or two directions at a time.
- Explain unfamiliar terms.
- Write directions on the board in front of the student.
- Write directions on a small board or piece of paper on the
- Record directions on tape so that they can be listened to one at
- Use hand signals or signing for the student who has a hearing
- Provide directions in Braille for the student who has a visual
- Stand close to the student and gain eye contact before giving
3) Change the Task Characteristics
- Tape record the
- Make a chart, model, or collage.
- Decorate a bulletin board.
- Make a time line.
- Interview a person using a questionnaire.
- Interview a person using a tape recorder.
- Shoot a "TV show" using a video camera.
- Prepare a radio or TV commercial.
- Act out a play, skit or mime show.
- Give an oral presentation using a prepared chart of pictures or
photographs, or picture cue cards.
- Provide a scribe.
- Use a calculator.
- Use pictures to illustrate work.
- Provide a computer printout.
4) Provide Prompts
Teachers use prompts or cues for all students. Some students
require a more intense level of prompting in order to
accomplish a task.
Prompts should be given in the least intrusive way, and with
the intention of fading them as soon as possible. This is
necessary so that the student does not become bound by the
prompt. A student may begin to think he is not allowed to do
the next part of a task until the prompt has been given. If
the prompting is constant and static it may discourage the
student from trying the next step of the process.
Gradually move through levels of prompts as the student
begins to master each task.
1.Physically assist the student to do the task.
2.Then give what physical assistance is necessary to
complete the task.
3.Give a gesture, or model the task, so that the student
can copy the action.
4.Give a direct verbal prompt, such as: "Pick up your
5.Give an indirect verbal prompt, such as: "What do you
Students who are provided with support from a teacher
assistant or a volunteer sometimes rely on that person to
give the direction, rather than responding to the direction
when it is given by the teacher.
The teacher can make it clear that when he/she addresses
the whole class the student is included.
It may be necessary to cue the student that a direction is
about to be given and that it is time to listen.
5) How to Deal with Tasks
1.Analyze the task.
2.Break the task into small teachable steps.
3.Analyze the steps the student needs to know in order to
complete a task.
4.Determine which steps the student knows well, partially
knows, or still needs to learn.
5.Teach the steps that are partially known, followed by
the steps that are still to be learned.
6.Provide additional opportunities for practice to maintain
the steps already learned as well as the ones being
LEARNING & TEACHING PHILOSOPHY
Learning and teaching are active, collaborative, constructive, and continuous processes which enable teachers and students to reflect upon and analyze their own learning and teaching.
Direct experience in learning situations is essential.
Learners should engage in developmentally appropriate activities that are meaningful and authentic.
High standards of scholarship are essential for both teachers and students to remain at the forefront of sound educational practice and change.
Teachers should :
Have a solid background in the knowledge of the learner, content, pedagogy, and self;
Apply this knowledge to make appropriate decisions regarding students, curriculum, and instructional strategies;
Engage in continual reflection and analysis;
Experience life-long professional growth
and actively participate in their schools and communities.
Materials || Nada's
Teaching Culture || Teaching Reading || Teaching Writing || Motivation || Language Acquisition