The readers, listeners, or viewers for whom a particular
work is intended.
The background experience and knowledge that a student
brings to classroom learning. Sometimes referred to as prior knowledge.
A group recitation of a story or poem, intended to
help students gain confidence in reading.
A passage of text with some words omitted (e.g.,
mineral resources include nickel, copper, and _____). Students complete
these passages to demonstrate reading comprehension, knowledge of the subject
matter, and proficiency with specific items of grammar, vocabulary, or
A word related to another word in origin and/or meaning
school and scholar; English school
and Spanish escuela).
Accepted practices or rules in the use of written
or oral language.
A group of signs (cues) that help readers to extract
meaning from print. There are four major types of cues: semantic, syntactic,
graphophonic, and pragmatic. Semantic cues are meaningful relations
among words. A reader needs to know the meaning of words and have some
knowledge of the subject matter in order to understand text. Syntactic
cues are grammatical patterns such as word order or word endings. Graphophonic
cues are the connections between sounds and the written symbols of
language. Pragmatic cues are the characteristics of different types
of text (e.g., when a reader recognizes the differences between a newspaper
and a telephone directory and uses these resources differently).
In writing, the correcting of grammatical, usage,
punctuation, and spelling errors to ensure that the writing is clear, coherent,
and correct. In media works, the selection and juxtaposition of sounds
and images. (See alsoProofreading, Revising,
Forms of writing.
Forms of writing include: narrative, dialogue, anecdote,
poetry, dramatic script, description, set of instructions, announcement,
advertisement, personal essay, descriptive essay, supported opinion, expository
essay, persuasive or argumentative essay, research essay or report, summary,
critique, proposal, résumé, editorial, speech, letter, brochure,
manual, agenda and minutes of a meeting, set of notes, learning log, diary,
journal, list, survey, and chart.
A visual representation such as a chart, table, timeline,
flow chart, or diagram used to record, organize, analyse, synthesize, and
assess information and ideas.
A reading process in which the teacher guides students
through text, using a series of structured activities before, during, and
The pitch of the voice in speaking. Variations in
intonation convey information (e.g., a rising pitch at the end of a sentence
indicates a question). Intonation is an important component of pronunciation.
(See also Stress.)
A text based on a shared class experience, such as
a field trip or an experiment, composed orally by the students and transcribed
by the teacher for instructional purposes.
A dictionary produced specifically for second-language
learners, containing extra features such as illustrative sentences and
information about the grammatical features and language styles associated
with specific words.
Planned methods or techniques for facilitating and
enhancing learning (e.g., memorization techniques for assimilating material;
cognitive techniques for making purposeful associations among ideas; social
techniques for interacting with peers).
Literary (or stylistic) device.
A particular pattern of words, a figure of speech,
or a technique used in literature to produce a specific effect (e.g., metaphor,
Some examples are: documentary, situation comedy,
television or radio drama, news report, sports program, nature program,
editorial, newspaper, magazine, brochure, interview, film, video, travelogue,
television commercial, newspaper advertisement, cartoon.
Physical behaviour that supports communication (e.g.,
gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, physical proximity, touching).
A book that contains text with predictable and/or
repetitive language patterns.
A dictionary for language learners in which entry
words are accompanied by illustrations or photographs to clarify their
The careful reading of a final draft of written work
to eliminate typographical errors and to correct errors in grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation. (See also Editing,
Methods used in reading to determine the meaning
of a text. Examples are: rereading; substituting an appropriate familiar
word for an unfamiliar one; using root words to determine the meaning of
unfamiliar words; using
background knowledge to determine meaning;
using information from the context to determine meaning; predicting the
use of specific words or types of words from the context (e.g., in a simple
statement, the verb often immediately follows the subject); making inferences;
predicting content; confirming or revising predictions; adjusting speed
in silent reading according to the purpose of reading or the difficulty
of the text; using graphic organizers; skimming text for information
or details; scanning text to determine the purpose of text or the type
of material included; recording key points and organizing them in sequence;
monitoring comprehension. (See also Cueing system.)
A style of language (e.g., formal, colloquial) appropriate
to a specific audience, purpose, or situation. Register is determined by
the level of formality in a particular social setting, the relationship
among the individuals involved in the communication, and the purpose of
The process of making changes to the content, structure,
and wording of drafts to improve the organization of ideas, eliminate awkward
phrasing, correct grammatical and spelling errors, and generally ensure
that the writing is clear, coherent, and correct. (See also Editing,
The characteristic grammatical structures or patterns
of English, such as word order, the use of prefixes and suffixes, the use
of auxiliary verbs to form questions and negatives, the use of prepositions,
and the use of articles (e.g., Do you speak English?, I donít eat hot
Social and cultural competence.
The ability to function appropriately in a particular
social or cultural context according to the rules and expectations for
behaviour held by members of that social or cultural group.
Standard Canadian English.
Oral and written English that follows accepted rules
and practices of grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation and that is
used across a broad spectrum of Canadian society (e.g., in government,
educational, medical, legal, scientific, business, and media communications).
Emphasis on specific syllables in a word or specific
words in a sentence when speaking. Stress is an important component of
pronunciation and contributes to meaning. (See also Intonation.)
Vocabulary specific to or most often used in the
context of a particular school subject (e.g., equation, axis,
and correlate belong to the subject-specific vocabulary of mathematics).
Varieties of English.
Different forms of English used by particular groups
of English speakers, including regional and social groups, and characterized
by distinct vocabularies, pronunciation patterns, and grammatical features.
An object used to relate classroom teaching to real
life (e.g., food, clothing, a photograph, an item from school or daily
The process involved in producing a polished
piece of writing. The writing process comprises several stages, each of
which focuses on specific tasks. The main stages of the writing process
are: generating ideas; choosing a topic; developing a plan for writing;
writing a first draft; reviewing and revising; editing and proofreading;
and producing a final copy.
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