.ESL Curriculum.
Glossary
Audience.
The readers, listeners, or viewers for whom a particular work is intended.
Background knowledge.
The background experience and knowledge that a student brings to classroom learning. Sometimes referred to as prior knowledge.
Choral reading.
A group recitation of a story or poem, intended to help students gain confidence in reading.
Cloze passage.
A passage of text with some words omitted (e.g., Canadaís mineral resources include nickel, copper, and _____). Students complete these passages to demonstrate reading comprehension, knowledge of the subject matter, and proficiency with specific items of grammar, vocabulary, or spelling.
Cognate.
A word related to another word in origin and/or meaning (e.g., English school and scholar; English school and Spanish escuela).
Conventions.
Accepted practices or rules in the use of written or oral language.
Cueing system.
A group of signs (cues) that help readers to extract meaning from print. There are four major types of cues: semantic, syntactic, graphophonic, and pragmatic. Semantic cues are meaningful relations among words. A reader needs to know the meaning of words and have some knowledge of the subject matter in order to understand text. Syntactic cues are grammatical patterns such as word order or word endings. Graphophonic cues are the connections between sounds and the written symbols of language. Pragmatic cues are the characteristics of different types of text (e.g., when a reader recognizes the differences between a newspaper and a telephone directory and uses these resources differently).
Editing.
In writing, the correcting of grammatical, usage, punctuation, and spelling errors to ensure that the writing is clear, coherent, and correct. In media works, the selection and juxtaposition of sounds and images. (See alsoProofreading, Revising, Writing process.)
Forms of writing.
Forms of writing include: narrative, dialogue, anecdote, poetry, dramatic script, description, set of instructions, announcement, advertisement, personal essay, descriptive essay, supported opinion, expository essay, persuasive or argumentative essay, research essay or report, summary, critique, proposal, résumé, editorial, speech, letter, brochure, manual, agenda and minutes of a meeting, set of notes, learning log, diary, journal, list, survey, and chart.
Graphic organizer.
A visual representation such as a chart, table, timeline, flow chart, or diagram used to record, organize, analyse, synthesize, and assess information and ideas.
Guided reading.
A reading process in which the teacher guides students through text, using a series of structured activities before, during, and after reading.
Intonation.
The pitch of the voice in speaking. Variations in intonation convey information (e.g., a rising pitch at the end of a sentence indicates a question). Intonation is an important component of pronunciation. (See also Stress.)
Language-experience story.
A text based on a shared class experience, such as a field trip or an experiment, composed orally by the students and transcribed by the teacher for instructional purposes.
Learner dictionary.
A dictionary produced specifically for second-language learners, containing extra features such as illustrative sentences and information about the grammatical features and language styles associated with specific words.
Learning strategies.
Planned methods or techniques for facilitating and enhancing learning (e.g., memorization techniques for assimilating material; cognitive techniques for making purposeful associations among ideas; social techniques for interacting with peers).
Literary (or stylistic) device.
A particular pattern of words, a figure of speech, or a technique used in literature to produce a specific effect (e.g., metaphor, simile, symbol).
Media works.
Some examples are: documentary, situation comedy, television or radio drama, news report, sports program, nature program, editorial, newspaper, magazine, brochure, interview, film, video, travelogue, television commercial, newspaper advertisement, cartoon.
Non-verbal communication.
Physical behaviour that supports communication (e.g., gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, physical proximity, touching).
Pattern book.
A book that contains text with predictable and/or repetitive language patterns.
Pictorial dictionary.
A dictionary for language learners in which entry words are accompanied by illustrations or photographs to clarify their meaning.
Proofreading.
The careful reading of a final draft of written work to eliminate typographical errors and to correct errors in grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation. (See also Editing, Revising, Writing process.)
Reading strategies.
Methods used in reading to determine the meaning of a text. Examples are: rereading; substituting an appropriate familiar word for an unfamiliar one; using root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words; using background knowledge to determine meaning; using information from the context to determine meaning; predicting the use of specific words or types of words from the context (e.g., in a simple statement, the verb often immediately follows the subject); making inferences; predicting content; confirming or revising predictions; adjusting speed in silent reading according to the purpose of reading or the difficulty of the text; using graphic organizers; skimming text for information or details; scanning text to determine the purpose of text or the type of material included; recording key points and organizing them in sequence; monitoring comprehension. (See also Cueing system.)
Register.
A style of language (e.g., formal, colloquial) appropriate to a specific audience, purpose, or situation. Register is determined by the level of formality in a particular social setting, the relationship among the individuals involved in the communication, and the purpose of the interaction.
Revising.
The process of making changes to the content, structure, and wording of drafts to improve the organization of ideas, eliminate awkward phrasing, correct grammatical and spelling errors, and generally ensure that the writing is clear, coherent, and correct. (See also Editing, Proofreading, Writing process.)
Sentence patterns.
The characteristic grammatical structures or patterns of English, such as word order, the use of prefixes and suffixes, the use of auxiliary verbs to form questions and negatives, the use of prepositions, and the use of articles (e.g., Do you speak English?, I donít eat hot dogs).
Social and cultural competence.
The ability to function appropriately in a particular social or cultural context according to the rules and expectations for behaviour held by members of that social or cultural group.
Standard Canadian English.
Oral and written English that follows accepted rules and practices of grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation and that is used across a broad spectrum of Canadian society (e.g., in government, educational, medical, legal, scientific, business, and media communications).
Stress.
Emphasis on specific syllables in a word or specific words in a sentence when speaking. Stress is an important component of pronunciation and contributes to meaning. (See also Intonation.)
Subject-specific vocabulary.
Vocabulary specific to or most often used in the context of a particular school subject (e.g., equation, axis, and correlate belong to the subject-specific vocabulary of mathematics).
Varieties of English.
Different forms of English used by particular groups of English speakers, including regional and social groups, and characterized by distinct vocabularies, pronunciation patterns, and grammatical features.
Visual aid.
An object used to relate classroom teaching to real life (e.g., food, clothing, a photograph, an item from school or daily life).
Writing process.
The process involved in producing a polished piece of writing. The writing process comprises several stages, each of which focuses on specific tasks. The main stages of the writing process are: generating ideas; choosing a topic; developing a plan for writing; writing a first draft; reviewing and revising; editing and proofreading; and producing a final copy.

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