Nada Salem Abisamra
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"The Role of Motivation, Gender, and Language Learning Strategies
in EFL Proficiency" (Html / References)
Creator gathered all of creation and said,
'I want to hide something from the humans until they are Ready for it.
It is the Realization that They Create their Own Reality.'
The eagle said, 'Give it to me, I will take it to the moon.'
The Creator said, 'No. One day they will go there and find it.'
The salmon said, 'I will hide it on the bottom of the ocean.'
'No. They will go there too.'
The buffalo said, 'I will bury it on the Great Plains.'
Then Grand-mother Mole, who lives in the breast of Mother Earth,
and who has no physical eyes but sees with spiritual eyes,
said, 'Put it Inside them.'
And the creator said, 'It is done.' "
What do we infer from this "Legend?"
is like food for the brain. --Peter Davies
on meaning when you become motivated, set goals and
charge after them in an unstoppable manner. -- Les Brown --
needs motivation. Everybody needs to have a reason for action.
It is a sad fact that most people in this world underachieve because
they don't believe they are capable of fulfilling their dreams.
We, teachers, need to be committed to offering students the opportunity
to believe in themselves and achieve great things.
Krashen's Affective Filter hypothesis
& Affect in Language Learning
Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition
consists of five main hypotheses:
1- Natural order hypothesis:
'We acquire the rules of language in a predictable order'
|2- Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis:||'Adults have two distinctive ways of developing competences in second languages .. acquisition, that is by using language for real communication (natural environment) ... learning .. "knowing about" language'|
|3- Monitor Hypothesis:||'Conscious learning ... can only
be used as a Monitor or an editor'
(those who use the monitor a lot are slow learners => too conscious of what they say)
|4- Input Hypothesis:||'Humans acquire language in only
one way - by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"'
(comprehensible input = data we hear around us; if we are relaxed, it goes directly to our heads)
|5- Affective Filter Hypothesis:||'A mental block, caused by affective factors ... that prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device'|
In this presentation, we are only interested in the fifth hypothesis -- The Affective Filter Hypothesis-- which stipulates that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to 'raise' the affective filter and form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition. (Krashen, 1985)
What we conclude then is that Affect plays a very important role in second language acquisition. It needs to be taken into consideration by L2 teachers so they make sure that the students' affective filter is low at all times in order for learning to take place.
Since this presentation is only related to Motivation, it will not cover the two other variables: self-confidence and anxiety.
Before we start by defining motivation, mentioning its sources and different theories/models and their implications, we believe it is worth asking one question that seems to guide all theorists' and researchers' work: "Why do people learn a second or foreign language? In other words, what is their Goal?
1- Why Do
People Learn a
This seems to be the key question in all kinds of research!
And of course, the reasons vary from a person to another.
2- Definitions of L2
3- Good L2 Learners
Research has shown that the use of specific learning strategies & techniques while studying a second or foreign language leads to success. "The conscious, tailored use of such strategies is related to language achievement and proficiency. (Oxford, 1994)
Some of those strategies:
Rubin (1975) suggested that good L2 learnersOne of the factors that influence the choice of strategies used among students learning a second/foreign language is Motivation. More motivated students tend to use more strategies than less motivated students, hence, they tend to be more successful. (Oxford, 1990a)
are willing and accurate guessers; have a strong drive to communicate; are often uninhibited, and if they are, they combat inhibition by using positive self-talk, by extensive use of practicing in private, and by putting themselves in situations where they have to participate communicatively. are willing to make mistakes; focus on form by looking for patterns and analyzing; take advantage of all practice opportunities; monitor their speech as well as that of others; and pay attention to meaning.
4- Definitions of Motivation
However simple and easy the word "motivation" might appear, it is in fact very difficult to define. It seems to have been impossible for theorists to reach consensus on a single definition.
Here are a few that I have found in the literature:
According to the Webster's, to motivate means to provide with a motive, a need or desire that causes a person to act.
According to Gardner (1985), motivation is concerned with the question, "Why does an organism behave as it does?
Motivation involves 4 aspects:
Motivation is also defined as the impetus to create and sustain intentions and goal-seeking acts (Ames & Ames, 1989). It is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. (Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa, 1998)
- A Goal
- An Effort
- A Desire to attain the goal
- Favorable Attitude toward the activity in question.
Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal.
Many researchers consider motivation as one of the main elements that determine success in developing a second or foreign language; it determines the extent of active, personal involvement in L2 learning. (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)Sometimes a distinction is made between positive and negative motivation.What can we infer from all those definitions? What are the keywords that "Motivation" triggers in our minds?
Positive motivation is a response which includes enjoyment and optimism about the tasks that you are involved in.
Negative motivation involves undertaking tasks for fear that there should be undesirable outcomes, eg. failing a subject, if tasks are not completed.
*Goal *Effort *Desire *Energy *Active involvement *Persistence
Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.
--Napolean Hill --
5- Sources of Motivation
"Without knowing where the roots of motivation lie, how
can teachers water those roots?"
(Oxford & Shearin, 1994- p.15)
Educational psychologists point to three major sources of motivation in learning (Fisher, 1990):
- The learner’s natural interest: intrinsic satisfaction
- The teacher/institution/employment: extrinsic reward
- Success in the task: combining satisfaction and reward
In general, explanations regarding the source(s) of motivation can be categorized as either extrinsic (outside the person) or intrinsic (internal to the person). Intrinsic sources and corresponding theories can be further subcategorized as either body/physical, mind/mental (i.e., cognitive, affective, conative) or transpersonal/spiritual.
Note: Conation = inclination to act purposefully; impulse.
"It is an intrinsic 'unrest' of the organism, almost the opposite of homeostasis.
A conscious tendency to act... a conscious striving." (English & English, 1958)
Note: Vicarious learning = the acquisition of knowledge or
through indirect experience and observation, rather than direct experience or practice.
(Harcourt Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology)
The following chart provides a brief overview of the different sources of motivation that have been studied. While INITIATION of action can be traced to each of these domains, it appears likely that PERSISTENCE may be more related to emotions and/or the affective area (optimism vs. pessimism; self- esteem; etc.) or to conation and goal-orientation.
|Sources of Motivational Needs|
6- Theories of Motivation
A- Behavioral Theories
- Drive:.(Hull) urgent, basic, or instinctual need: a motivating physiological condition of an organism.
- Learned motives
- Classical conditioning: (Pavlov) it states that biological responses to associated stimuli energize and direct behavior.
- Instrumental/operant learning: (Skinner) it states that the primary factor is consequences: reinforcers are incentives to increase behavior and punishers are disincentives that result in a decrease in behavior.
(Stimulus => response => reward)
The desire of reward is one of the strongest incentives of human conduct; ... the best security for the fidelity of mankind is to make their interest coincide with their duty. --Alexander Hamilton (The Federalist Papers)
- Observational/social learning: (Bandura) it suggests that modeling (imitating others) and vicarious learning (watching others have consequences applied to their behavior) are important motivators of behavior.
Incentive motivation: it refers to goal-directed behavior (behavior that is "pulled" more than "pushed"). Seeking of rewards; avoidance of punishers.
Unlike drives, which were thought to be innate, incentives are usually considered to be learned.
Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of external stimuli and reinforcement. The physical environment and actions of the teacher are of prime importance.
B- Cognitive Theories
- Expectancy-value/VIE theory: (Vroom, 1964) it proposes the following equation:
Perceived Probability of Success (Expectancy)
Connection of Success and Reward-- material benefit (Instrumentality)
Value of Obtaining Goal (Valence, Value)
(VIE = Valence, Instrumentality, Expectancy)
Since this formula states that the three factors of Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence or Value are to be multiplied by each other, a low value in one will result in a low value of motivation. Therefore, all three must be present in order for motivation to occur. That is, if an individual doesn't believe he or she can be successful at a task OR the individual does not see a connection between his or her activity and success OR the individual does not value the results of success, then the probability is lowered that the individual will engage in the required learning activity. From the perspective of this theory, all three variables must be high in order for motivation and the resulting behavior to be high.
=> An individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
- Attribution theory: (Heider, 1958; Weiner, 1974). This theory proposes that every individual tries to explain success or failure of self and others by offering certain "attributions." These attributions are either internal or external and are either under control or not under control. The following chart shows the four attributions that result from a combination of internal or external locus of control and whether or not control is possible.
Internal External No Control Ability Luck Control Effort Task Difficulty
In a teaching/learning environment, it is important to assist the learner to develop a self-attribution explanation of effort (internal, control). If the person has an attribution of ability (internal, no control) as soon as the individual experiences some difficulties in the learning process, he or she will decrease appropriate learning behavior. If the person has an external attribution, then nothing the person can do will help that individual in a learning situation (i.e., responsibility for demonstrating what has been learned is completely outside the person). In this case, there is nothing to be done by the individual when learning problems occur.
- Cognitive dissonance theory: it was developed by Leon Festinger (1957) and states that when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs, two actions, or between a belief and an action, we will act to resolve conflict and discrepancies. The implication is that if we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium, this will in turn lead to the individual changing his or her behavior which in turn will lead to a change in thought patterns which in turn leads to more change in behavior.
Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).
According to the Webster's, cognitive dissonance is a psychological conflict resulting from incongruous beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously.
Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of a person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life. Thus, motivation is internal.
C- Cognitive Developmental Theories
- Stages of Cognitive Development (Piaget, 1972, 1990)
According to Piaget, children are motivated to develop their cognitive or mental abilities in a predictable set of stages:
- Sensorimotor stage (Infancy, 0 to 2 years). In this period (which has 6 stages), intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because its based on physical interactions / experiences. Children acquire object permanence at about 7 months of age (memory). Physical development (mobility) allows the child to begin developing new intellectual abilities. Some symbollic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage.
- Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood, 2-7 years). In this period (which has two substages), intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed, but thinking is done in a nonlogical, nonreversable manner. Egocentric thinking predominates
- Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence, 7-12 years). In this stage (characterized by 7 types of conservation: number, length, liquid, mass, weight, area, volume), intelligence is demonstarted through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops (mental actions that are reversible). Egocentric thought diminishes.
- Formal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood, 12 years –adult). In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. Early in the period there is a return to egocentric thought. Only 35% of high school graduates in industrialized countries obtain formal operations; many people do not think formally during adulthood.
<=> According to this model, fulfillment of the previous stage is necessary for advancement to the next stage.
In order for the child to be motivated, parents and teachers need to challenge his/her abilities, but NOT present material or information that is too far beyond the child's level. It is also recommended that teachers use a wide variety of concrete experiences to motivate the child (e.g., use of manipulatives, working in groups to get experience seeing from another's perspective, field trips, etc).
- Zone of proximal development (Lev Vygotsky, 1978)
The Zone of Proximal Development is the distance between the learner's actual developmental level and the level of potential development; it is the gap between what we are trying to teach and the current state of development in that area. If the gap is too large, instruction won’t be effective; too small and the learner won’t be extended, therefore teachers must have background knowledge of those they teach.
=> Scaffolded instruction involves an instructor or advanced peer working to support the development of the learner. The instructor should guide the learner in such a way that the gap is bridged between the learner’s current skill levels and the desired skill level. As learners become more proficient, able to complete tasks on their own that they could not initially do without assistance, the guidance can be withdrawn.
Students' needs, goals and interests must be the starting point if motivation is to occur.
For motivation and progress to exist, instructional input to students must be Challenging & Relevant. (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)
D- Achievement Motivation Theories
- Achievement motivation theories: (Atkinson & Raynor, 1974)
- Need for achievement: individuals with a high need for achievement are interested in excellence for its own sake (rather for extrinsic rewards), tend to initiate achievement activities, work with heightened intensity on these tasks, and persist in the face of failure.
- Fear of failure: The main drive to do well comes from avoiding a negative outcome rather than approaching a positive one.
- Fear of success: "Nerd" vs. "cool" => Fear of losing social support (affiliation).
- Goal-theory: (Locke & Latham, 1994) it has differentiated three separate types of goals:
- Mastery goals (also called learning goals) which focus on gaining competence or mastering a new set of knowledge or skills;
- Performance/normative goals (also called ego-involvement goals) which focus on achieving normative-based standards, doing better than others, or doing well without a lot of effort;
- Social goals which focus on relationships among people (see Ames, 1992; Dweck, 1986; Urdan & Maehr, 1995).
=> interpersonal skills- cooperative learning.
In the context of school learning, which involves operating in a relatively structured environment, students with mastery goals outperform students with either performance or social goals. However, in life success, it seems critical that individuals have all three types of goals in order to be very successful.
One aspect of this theory is that individuals are motivated to either avoid failure (more often associated with performance goals) or achieve success (more often associated with mastery goals). In the former situation, the individual is more likely to select easy or difficult tasks, thereby either achieving success or having a good excuse for why failure occurred. In the latter situation, the individual is more likely to select moderately difficult tasks which will provide an interesting challenge, but still keep the high expectations for success.
E- Psychoanalytic Theories
|Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development|
|Infancy||Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs|
Shame and Doubt
|Toddlerhood||Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control.|
|Early Childhood||Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions|
|Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others|
|Adolescence||Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires (Later work has shown two substages: a social identity focusing on which group a person will identify with and a personal identity focusing on abilities, goals, possibilities, etc.)|
|Young Adult||Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships|
|Middle Adulthood||Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation|
|Older Adulthood||Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan|
1) Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily comforts, etc.;
2) Safety/security: out of danger;
3) Belonginess and Love: affiliate with others, be accepted; and
4) Esteem: to achieve, be competent, gain approval and recognition.
According to Maslow, an individual is ready to act upon the growth needs if and only if the deficiency needs are met.
The remaining four levels (Growth Needs) are:
Self-actualized people are characterized by:8) Transcendence: to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential.
- Being problem-focused;
- Appreciating life;
- Showing concern about personal growth;
- Showing ability to have peak experiences.
||Impels a person to make creative or productive effects on himself and his environment||Satisfied through using capabilities in engaging problems; creates a greater sense of wholeness and fullness as a human being|
||Involves relationships with significant others||Satisfied by mutually sharing thoughts and feelings; acceptance, confirmation, understanding, and influence are elements|
||Includes all of the various forms of material and psychological desires||When divided among people one person's gain is another's loss if resources are limited|
Maslow recognized that not all personalities followed his proposed hierarchy. While a variety of personality dimensions might be considered as related to motivational needs, one of the most often cited is that of introversion and extroversion. Reorganizing Maslow's hierarchy based on the work of Alderfer and considering the introversion/extroversion dimension of personality results in three levels, each with an introverted and extroverted component. This organization suggests there may be two aspects of each level that differentiate how people relate to each set of needs. Different personalities might relate more to one dimension than the other. For example, an introvert at the level of Other/Relatedness might be more concerned with his or her own perceptions of being included in a group, whereas an extrovert at that same level would pay more attention to how others value that membership.
A Reorganization of Maslow's and Alderfer's Hierarchies
|Growth||Self-Actualization (development of competencies [knowledge, attitudes, and skills] and character)||Transcendence (assisting in the development of others' competencies and character; relationships to the unknown, unknowable)|
|Personal identification with group, significant others (Belongingness)||Value of person by group (Esteem)|
|Physiological, biological (including basic emotional needs)||Connectedness,
Deci identifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as the three criteria necessary for the self-determination theory of motivation.
Edward L. Deci
G- Social Cognition
Most of the transpersonal or spiritual theories deal with the meaningfulness of our lives or ultimate meanings.
|A- Behavioral Theories
=> extrinsic motivation
Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of external stimuli and reinforcement. The physical environment and actions of the teacher are of prime importance.
|1- Classical conditioning
2- Operant conditioning
3- Observational/social learning
response, association (involuntary)
2- Stimulus, response, reward = reinforcement
3- Modeling (imitation) + Vicarious learning
|B- Cognitive Theories
=> intrinsic motivation
Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life. Thus motivation is internal.
2- Attribution theory
3- Cognitive dissonance
|1- Vroom / 1964
2- Heider, 1958 / Weiner, 1974
3- Festinger / 1957
|1- Expectancy of success + Instrumentality
(see the connection between activity & reward) + Value the results.
2- Attribute success/failure to factors that are: internal/external/under control/out of control
3- Act to resolve conflict or discrepancies.
|C- Cognitive Developmental Theories||1- Stages of cognitive development.
2- Zone of proximal development
|1- Piaget / 1972, 1990
2- Vygotsky / 1978
|D- Achievement Motivation Theories||1- Need for achievement
2- Fear of failure
3- Fear of success
4- Goal theory:
|1- 2- 3- Atkinson & Raynor / 1974
4- Locke & Latham / 1994
|E- Psychoanalytic||1- Life & Death
2- Social/interpersonal relationships
4- Search for soul
|1- Freud / 1990
2- Erikson, 1993 / Sullivan, 1968
3- Adler / 1989
4- Jung / 1953, 1997
|F- Humanistic Theories
Humanists stress the need for personal growth. They place a great deal of emphasis on the total person, along with the related news of personal freedom, choice and self-determination.
|1- Hierarchy of Needs
2- Hierarchy of Motivational Needs
|1- Maslow / 1954
2- Alderfer, 1972
3- Deci & Ryan, 1985
|1- Self-actualization, esteem, belongingness,
We are not motivated by any higher-level needs until our lower-level ones
have been satisfied.
2- Growth, relatedness, existence needs.
Alderfer showed how people regress if their higher order needs are not met.
3- Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic motivation- A person must be able to initiate and regulate, through personal choice, the effort expended to complete a task in order for the task to be intrinsically rewarding.
|G- Social Cognition||1- Self-efficacy
|1- 2- Bandura / 1986, 1997||1- Judging one's own ability
2- Establishing goals and developing a plan to attain those goals.
7- Models of Motivation
In the context of language learning, instrumental
motivation refers to the learner's desire to learn a language for utilitarian
purposes (such as school/university requirement, employment or travel),
whereas integrative motivation refers to the desire to learn a language
to integrate successfully into the target language community.
Researchers challenged the social psychological approach claiming that it does not include the cognitive aspects of learning motivation (Oxford & Shearin, 1994; Dornyei, 1994), it is not practical and does not benefit L2 learning since it is too broad to help L2 educators generate practical guidelines (Dornyei, 1990).
Questions the learner asks him/herself:
C- Schumann (1978, 1986): Acculturation Model- Schumann examined the effects of personal variables such as relative status, attitude, integration, amount of time in the culture, size of the learning group, and cohesiveness of the group on adult language learning.
Schumann suggested three strategies taken by adult learners:
Gardner (1985) describes core second language learning motivation as a construct composed of three characteristics:
According to Gardner, a highly motivated individual will
"An integratively oriented learner would likely have a stronger desire to learn the language, have more positive attitudes towards the learning situation, and be more likely to expend more effort in learning the language (Gardner, 1985).
The Gardnerian theory of SLA motivation is based on the definition of motivation as "the extent to which the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity" (Gardner, 1985).
The micro level involves the cognitive processing of L2 input.
At the micro level learner motivation is evidenced by the amount of attention given to the input.
The classroom level includes the techniques and activities employed in the classroom.
The syllabus level refers to the choice of content presented and can influence motivation by the level of curiosity and interest stimulated in the students.
Finally, factors from outside the classroom involve informal interaction in the L2 and long term factors.
Crookes & Schmidt (1991) also suggested that motivation to learn a language has both internal and external features:
1- Interest in L2 (based on attitudes,
experience, background knowledge)
1- Decision to choose, pay attention
to, and engage in L2 learning.
* beliefs about self (i.e., expectancies about one's attitudes to succeed, self-efficacy, and anxiety)
* goals (perceived clarity and relevance of learning goals as reasons for learning)
* involvement (i.e., extent to which the learner actively and consciously participates in the language learning process)
* environmental support (i.e., extent of teacher and peer support, and the integration of cultural and outside-of-class support into learning experience)
* personal attributes (i.e., aptitude, age, sex, and previous language learning experience).
K- Dornyei (1998):.He suggests seven main motivational dimensions:
2. the instrumental/pragmatic dimension;
3. the macro-context-related dimension (multi-cultural/ intergroup / ethnolinguistic relations);
4. the self-concept-related
dimension (generalised/ trait-like personality factors);
5. the goal-related dimension;
6. the educational context-related dimension (learning/ classroom/ school environment);
7. the significant others-related dimension (parents, family, friends).
|A- Gardner/Lambert (1959/1972)||Socio-Educational Model||Instrumental and Integrative motivation + Assimilative & Affiliative|
|B- Vroom (1964)||Expectancy Value Theories:||Effort
|C- Schumann (1978/1986)||Acculturation Model
|Assimilation: total adoption
Rejection of target culture
Acculturation: learning to function in the new culture while maintaining one's own identity.
|D- Gardner (1985)||Four other motivational orientations||(a) reason for learning,
(b) desire to attain the learning goal,
(c) positive attitude toward the learning situation, and
(d) effortful behavior.
|E- Deci & Ryan (1985)||Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory||Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation|
|F- Dornyei (1990)||Motivational construct||Instrumental Motivational
Need for Achievement
Attribution about past failures.
|G- Crookes & Schmidt (1991)||1- Four areas of SL motivation
2- Structure of Motivation
|1- Micro level,
Syllabus level, and
Outside the classroom level.
2- Internal factors (interest, relevance, expectancy, outcomes) & External factors (decision, persistence, activity level)
|H- Oxford & Shearin (1994)||Six factors that impact motivation in language learning||Attitudes
Beliefs about self
|I- Dornyei (1994)||Taxonomy of motivation||Language Level,
Learner Level, and
Learning Situation Level.
|J- Wen (1997)||Incorporated expectancy-value theories||Motivation of instrumentality
Expected learning strategies and efforts
Passivity towards requirements.
|K- Dornyei (1998)||Seven main motivational dimensions||1. affective/integrative
6. educational context-related
7. significant others-related
Factors that Affect Motivation
"Motivation to learn is a competence acquired through general experience but stimulated most directly through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others (especially parents and teachers)." (Brophy, 1987)
"To a very large degree, students expect to learn if their teachers expect them to learn."
|Age||cf. Piaget, Maslow, Alderfer, Erikson, Vygotsky, ...|
|Gender||Girls are known to acquire languages faster than boys. Hence, their motivation would be higher.|
|Goals||Why the learner is studying the language.|
|Need||How much the learner needs to study this language.|
|Interest (and curiosity)||How interested the learner is in learning this language.|
|Attitude||How the learner views this language and its speakers.|
|Expectancy||How much the learner expects to succeed.|
|Self-efficacy / Competence||Judging own ability and competence.
How capable of success they think they are.
|Native language proficiency||The more academically sophisticated the student's native language knowledge and abilities, the easier it will be for that student to learn a second language, then the more motivated s/he will be.|
|First foreign language||.|
|Course content & Classroom atmosphere||
|Teenagers tend to be heavily influenced by their peer groups. In second language learning, peer pressure often undermines the goals set by parents and teachers. Peer pressure often reduces the desire of the student to work toward native pronunciation, because the sounds of the target language may be regarded as strange. For learners of English as a second language, speaking like a native speaker may unconsciously be regarded as a sign of no longer belonging to their native-language peer group. In working with secondary school students, it is important to keep these peer influences in mind and to foster a positive image for proficiency in a second language.|
|Role models||Students need to have positive and realistic
role models who demonstrate the value of being proficient in more
than one language.
|Home support||Support from home is very important for students' motivation to learn a second language. If parents value both the native language and English, communicate with their children in whichever language is most comfortable, and show support for and interest in their children's progress, the children will definitely be more motivated to learn the second language.|
|Learning environment||In order for the students to be motivated, the learning environment needs to be free from axiety; the student should not feel threatened or intimidated. In order for him/her to speak, s/he needs to feel s/he will be heard and that what s/he is saying is worth hearing.|
http://exchanges.state.gov/forum/vols/vol35/no1/p8.htm (Motivating Learners At South Korean Universities) by Janet S. Niederhauser)
9- Instruments for Motivation Assessment:
- The "Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB)- Gardner, 1985
- Motivational intensity questionnaire (Gardner, 1985)
To measure intensity of motivation.
- The Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) (Keller, 1987). It requires students to rate 36 ARCS-related statements in relation to the instructional materials they have just used.
- Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1989)
To measure language learning strategies.
- Motivational Delivery Checklist (Keller and Keller, 1989)
A 47-item ARCS-based instrument for evaluating the motivational characteristics of an instructor's classroom delivery.
- Motivational element questionnaire (Schmidt et al., 1996)
To measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
- Motivation Scale (Wen, 1997)
- The Website Motivational Analysis Checklist (WebMAC) (Small, 1997)
It is an instrument used for designing and assessing the motivational quality of World Wide Web sites.
10- Implications & Strategies for L2 Learners' Motivation:
Check Matching Exercise
The greatest motivational act one person can do for another is to listen.--Roy E. Moody
Dornyei (1994) suggests
- developing students' self-efficacy,
- decreasing their anxiety,
- promoting motivation-enhancing attributions,
- encouraging students to set attainable sub-goals, and
- increasing the attractiveness of course content.
Dornyei (1998:131) suggests
"Ten Commandments for Motivating Language Learners”
- Set a personal example with your own behavior.
- Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
- Present the task properly.
- Develop a good relationship with the learners.
- Increase the learner's linguistic self-confidence.
- Make the language classes interesting.
- Promote learner autonomy.
- Personalize the learning process.
- Increase the learners' goal-orientedness.
- Familiarize learners with the target language culture.
Oxford & Shearin (1996:139) also offer Practical Suggestions for Teachers:
1. Teachers can identify why students are studying the new language.
2. Teachers can help shape students' beliefs about success and failure in L2 learning.
- Teachers can find out actual motivations (motivation survey).
- Information on motivation can be passed on to the next class in a portfolio.
- Teachers can determine which parts of L2 learning are especially valuable for the students.
- Students can learn to have realistic but challenging goals.
- Teachers can learn to accept diversity in the way students establish and meet their goals, based on differences in learning styles.
3. Teachers can help students improve motivation by showing that L2 learning can be an exciting mental challenge, a career enhancer, a vehicle to cultural awareness and friendship and a key to world peace.
4. Teachers can make the L2 classroom a welcoming, positive place where psychological needs are met and where language anxiety is kept to a minimum.
5. Teachers can urge students to develop their own intrinsic rewards through positive self-talk, guided self-evaluation, and mastery of specific goals, rather than comparison with other students. Teachers can thus promote a sense of greater self-efficacy, increasing motivation to continue learning the L2.
Keller (1983).He presents an instructional design model for motivation that is based upon a number of other theories. His model suggests a design strategy that encompasses four components of motivation:
Keller (1987).The ARCS Model of Motivational Design is a well-known and widely applied model of instructional design. Simple, yet powerful, the ARCS Model is rooted in a number of motivational theories and concepts, (see Keller, 1983) most notably expectancy-value theory (e.g. Vroom, 1964; Porter and Lawler, 1968).
- stimulating interest in the topic/ Attention,
- creating Relevance to students' lives,
- developing an expectancy of success and feelings of being in control / Confidence,
- producing Satisfaction in the outcome through intrinsic/extrinsic rewards.
In expectancy-value theory, "effort" is identified as the major measurable motivational outcome. For "effort" to occur, two necessary prerequisites are specified _ (1) the person must value the task and (2) the person must believe he or she can succeed at the task. Therefore, in an instructional situation, the learning task needs to be presented in a way that is engaging and meaningful to the student, and in a way that promotes positive expectations for the successful achievement of learning objectives.
The ARCS Model identifies four essential strategy components for motivating instruction:
- [A]ttention strategies for stimulating and sustaining curiosity and interest;
- [R]elevance strategies that link to learners' needs, interests, and motives;
- [C]onfidence strategies that help students develop a positive expectation for successful achievement; and
- [S]atisfaction strategies that provide extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement for effort (Keller, 1983).
Keller (1987) breaks each of the four ARCS components down into three strategy sub-components. The strategy sub-components and instructionally relevant examples are shown below.
- Perceptual Stimulation: provide novelty, surprise, incongruity or uncertainty. Ex. The teacher places a sealed box covered with question marks on a table in front of the class.
- Inquiry Stimulation: stimulate curiosity by posing questions or problems to solve. Ex. The teacher presents a scenario of a problem situation and asks the class to brainstorm possible solutions based on what they have learned in the lesson.
- Variability: incorporate a range of methods and media to meet students' varying needs. Ex. After displaying and reviewing each step in the process on the overhead projector, the teacher divides the class into teams and assigns each team a set of practice problems.
- Goal Orientation: present the objectives and useful purpose of the instruction and specific methods for successful achievement. Ex. The teacher explains the objectives of the lesson.
- Motive Matching: match objectives to student needs and motives. Ex. The teacher allows the students to present their projects in writing or orally to accommodate different learning needs and styles.
- Familiarity: present content in ways that are understandable and that are related to the learners' experience and values. Ex. The teacher asks the students to provide examples from their own experiences for the concept presented in class.
- Learning Requirements: inform students about learning and performance requirements and assessment criteria. Ex. The teacher provides students with a list of assessment criteria for their research projects and circulates examples of exemplary projects from past years.
- Success Opportunities: provide challenging and meaningful opportunities for successful learning. Ex. The teacher allows the students to practice extracting and summarizing information from various sources and then provides feedback before the students begin their research projects.
- Personal Responsibility: link learning success to students' personal effort and ability. Ex. The teacher provides written feedback on the quality of the students' performance and acknowledges the students' dedication and hard work.
- Intrinsic Reinforcement: encourage and support intrinsic enjoyment of the learning experience. Ex. The teacher invites former students to provide testimonials on how learning these skills helped them with subsequent homework and class projects.
- Extrinsic Rewards: provide positive reinforcement and motivational feedback. Ex. The teacher awards certificates to students as they master the complete set of skills.
- Equity: maintain consistent standards and consequences for success. Ex. After the term project has been completed, the teacher provides evaluative feedback using the criteria described in class.
There are a variety of specific actions that teachers can take to increase motivation on classroom tasks. In general, these fall into the two categories discussed above: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. (Huitt, 2001)
- Explain or show why learning a particular content or skill is important
- Create and/or maintain curiosity
- Provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations
- Provide games and simulations
- Set goals for learning
- Relate learning to student needs
- Help student develop plan of action
- Provide clear expectations
- Give corrective feedback
- Provide valuable rewards
- Make rewards available
Some teaching strategies that can be used to foster motivation and provide better transfer opportunities of language skills include the following: (Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa, 1998)
* Encourage learners to take ownership in learning.
Have learners take ownership of the learning assignment by letting them identify and decide for themselves relevant learning goals. This will motivate them to apply what they have learned to attain these learning goals.
* Promote intentional cognition or mindfulness to learning in various contexts.
Learners must be able to practice language in multiple contexts in order to bridge domains and foster active abstraction of concepts learned (Bransford, et al. 1990). This will help learners recognize the relevance and transferability of different learning skills or knowledge.
* Increase authenticity of learning tasks and goals.
Learners should recognize a real need to accomplish learning goals that are relevant and holistic (rather than task-specific). This prepares them for the complexities of real-world tasks that require them to use language skills and knowledge that have to be continually transferred.
"The best way to create interest in a subject is to render it worth knowing, which means to make the knowledge gained usable in one's thinking beyond the situation in which learning has occurred." Bruner (1960, p.31)
Some effective suggestions for improving the affective climate of the SL learning environment:
By Paula Kristmanson
- Encourage and support students at all times but especially when they are struggling or lacking confidence in certain areas.
- Be energetic and enthusiastic about what you are teaching and on those days when you do not have that energy, provide activities that require the learners to put forth the majority of the energy.
- Create an atmosphere in which students are not afraid to make mistakes and are encouraged to take risks.
- Avoid tension-causing strategies such as surprise quizzes, overly competitive activities, putting students in front of their peers with no warning or chance for preparation, and correcting errors in a negative, accusatory fashion.
- Allow students opportunities to talk about themselves, their interests, and their culture. Through preplanned and spontaneous activities, provide opportunities for interaction in the target language in and outside the language learning environment.
- Encourage goal setting and a sense of dedication and continuous commitment to the language learning task through meaningful, relevant and authentic language learning activities.
- Encourage learners to seek out opportunities in their lives that will help in the learning of the target language.
- Create, through the presentation of attainable goals and reasonable challenges, a learning environment with a definite potential for success.
- Recognize the "little successes", improvements and progress of all students both individually and with the entire group.
Walking your talk is a great way to motivate yourself. No one likes to live a lie. Be honest with yourself, and you will find the motivation to do what you advise others to do.
--Vince Poscente (Invinceable Principles)
YOU CAN BE WHATEVER YOU WANT TO BE
by Donna LevineThere is inside youhttp://www.wow4u.com/youcan/index.html
all of the potential to be whatever
you want to be
all of the energy to do whatever
you want to do.
Imagine yourself as you would like to be,
doing what you want to do,
and each day, take one step
towards your dream.
And though at times it may seem too
difficult to continue,
hold on to your dream.
One morning you will awake to find
that you are the person
you dreamed of
doing what you wanted to do
simply because you had the courage
to believe in your potential
and to hold on to your dream.
Keys to Motivation
Techniques to Help You Get Motivated Today
Get Up and Go - Motivation
Motivation is the force that causes you to take action - apply the effort & commitment needed to do something.
There are two important parts to motivation:
Who are you doing
For myself OR others
(parents or teachers)
What are you doing
To gain benefits OR
People tend to be most successful when working toward positive outcomes on things they find personally fulfilling. In such cases they will do whatever it takes to get the result that they want. One of the most important tasks is to decide what you want . . .
If you don't plan where you are heading, you might end up in an occupation or life style that is not very satisfying.
If you haven't decided yet, identify a range of wishes for the future, and set about exploring the background of people who have achieved that lifestyle.
Mapping out a plan to achieve your dreams is often called writing up a list of goals. Click here (http://www.study.com.au/ideal/idpdf/studentp/goal_sample_page.pdf) for an example.
(Make a Treasure Map of your Goals:
Make a map of the things that you wish to achieve during your life.
Start by listing the key areas, then adding more detail.
You will notice that each time you return to your map
your vision for the future will become clearer.
Use words, drawings or pictures from magazines.
Start with a picture of yourself.
A good strategy is to make a poster size collage for your
bedroom wall to help you focus on your goals each day.)
Whatever you call your preferred future direction, write it down, draw it, paint it, make a collage of your direction and work toward it.
If you can find something better, simply adjust you goals and direction.
Remember to link your goals to your school work.
To create greater motivation for your school work take time to find as many positive connections between the subjects you are doing and possible benefits for achieving your goals.
© Study Magic 1999
What is motivation?
Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal. Students who are motivated have a desire to undertake their study and complete the requirements of their course.
Are you a motivated student?Being a motivated student doesn’t mean you are always excited or fully committed to your study, but it does mean you will complete the tasks set for you even when assignments or practicals are difficult, or seem uninteresting.
What is 'loss of motivation'?You might experience loss of motivation as a reluctance to undertake an assignment or project, or attend a lecture or tutorial. As a result of loss of motivation you may be thinking about withdrawing from a subject, or taking leave from university for a semester, for a year, or ‘forever’.
You may experience loss of motivation as if it were a lost object or a lost friend. You might feel:
How can motivation ‘be lost’?The most common reasons for loss of motivation are:
- a change
- accumulated changes
- a negative experience
- several negative experiencesSpecific contributing factors might be:Just as you can ‘lose’ motivation, you can also ‘find’ motivation.
If you have experienced any of the above factors how have they affected you?
- a low mark or a series of low marks
- getting behind on a program of study
- responsibilities, other than study, taking priority
- feeling isolated
- study becoming irrelevant to short term or long term goals
- a mismatch between the knowledge, beliefs or interests which a student has and the ideas with which they are coming in contact
- the difficulty of subject material
Searching for motivation
The connecting link between losing motivation and finding it, is the search. The search will involve some focusing on how important the goal is that you are seeking, and some change to your behavior. It is likely to involve a number of steps.
Give yourself some quality time to work through the steps in this program.
Eight step plan to help you search for, and find motivation. The eight step plan for finding motivation to study can be shown as:Step 1 Give yourself time
Step 2 Work with all of you
Step 3 Focus on goals
Step 4 Make study a priority
Step 5 Feel good about yourself
Step 6 Take care of your health
Step 7 Visualization
Step 8 Build on your knowledge
Keep in mind that loss of motivation is an experience which can affect your thoughts, your feelings and your body.You probably have not lost motivation overnight. You will need to give yourself time to find it again. Lost objects are most easily found when you:
1- Give yourself timeHow can you begin to relax, give yourself time and concentrate on one thing at a time?
are calm have some time to search are able to concentrate on one thing at a time
2- Work with the whole youAsk yourself the following questions, and list your answers in a copy of the Table "How am I?"
You might be feeling anxious or guilty. You might be thinking that you will never be able to complete your work on time. You might be finding it difficult to get your body physically moving in the morning.Use a copy of the Table:"How am I?" to monitor your progress towards your goals. What am I feeling? What am I thinking? What is my physical state of health? What are my goals about how I want my feelings, thoughts and health to be ?
3- Focus on goals
You need to know your
Goals" table to answer the following questions
When you have completed the "My Goals" table ask you self the question:Where does study rate on my list of important goals?If
then you are experiencing loss of motivation to study.
study has been omitted from your list of goals or is a low priority or is not achievable,
There may be many aspects of your life that are important to you other than study. You may, for example,Any of these may be more important goals for you than study.
have family commitments, want to have paid employment, you may want to travel overseas.
If you have a large number of goals, or study is a low priority for you, you may choose toabout what is happening for you in relation to study and how you can decide which goals to make priorities.
make an appointment with a counselor, talk with a friend or see a teacher
You can either
talk with a friend about your priorities or, make an appointment to see a teacher or make an appointment to see a counselor or
If in Step 3 you discovered that study is a priority for you right now, you will need to get yourself going.
4- Make study a priority
Use the Make study a priority questionnaire to work out
- your study commitments
- a pattern for studying and
- how to incorporate rewards
When you have answered the questionnaire you will have completed a study plan for yourself which includes goals, time management and self rewards. With a study plan you will be able to undertake study and will be well on your way in your search for motivation.
You might also like to search out how to:
manage your time and study workload avoid procrastination
Feeling good about yourself and recognizing your achievements may be a key factor in helping you find motivation. When we have a sense of well being and self esteem we can tackle difficult or uninteresting tasks with a positive outlook.
5- Feel good about yourself
Use the "Feeling good about yourself" questionnaire to discover positive attributes about yourself and how to use them. You might find collecting positive attributes about yourself a difficult task. You could ask a close friend or a family member about positive aspects they recognize in you.
Physical well being is also an important part of finding motivation. Studying is demanding physically as well as mentally and emotionally. Because studying requires so much sitting, reading and computer work it is important that you include exercise and healthy eating in your life.
6- Take care of your health
Use the "How healthy am I?" questionnaire to assess your level of health.
- Changing eating and exercise patterns is not easy.
- Some experts say that small consistent changes are more effective than extreme changes to lifestyles.
- Different ways of eating and different ways of including exercise seem to suit different people at different times, eg. you might find that a short burst of regular exercise in the morning by yourself suits you; you might find that you look forward to a weekly game of netball, basketball or badminton in the evening; or you might find that a yoga or tai-chi class suits you
You can experiment with what suits you best.You might find that visualizing a situation, and a context in which you have successfully achieved your goals, is an effective motivational force. You can visualize yourself studying at your desk at home, working through your study program easily and efficiently and then seeing yourself completing your work and handing it up.
7- Visualization: Encouraging your mind to work for you
You can use the Visualization exercise for students to begin.
If you can picture positive situations in your head then you have an image, or a visualization, which you can use daily before or during study to visualize yourself being motivated and successful. You might want to learn more about meditation which includes practicing visualization.You have now undertaken seven steps to help you in your search for motivation. Step 2 included the examination of your thoughts, feelings and your health. Step 8 will involve you in monitoring how you are, and using what you have discovered to help you in your search for motivation. You will need to use your list of answers from Step 2 as a base line to discover how undertaking the seven steps has helped you in your search for motivation.
8- Build on your knowledge
At weekly intervals, you can use the Keeping up the search for motivation checklist The checklist will help you build on your knowledge about yourself in searching for, and maintaining, your motivation to study.
Other useful web sites:
Motivating Students: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~tep/tshooting/motivating.html
High Expectations: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/atrisk/at6lk11.htm
Student Motivation To Learn: http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed370200.html
Motivation in the Classroom: http://www.gse.uci.edu/ed173online/173weblio.html#LECT6
"Researchers must reconceptualize L2 learning strategies to include the social and affective sides of learning along with the more intellectual sides. The L2 learner is not just a cognitive and metacognitive machine but, rather, a whole person. In strategy training, teachers should help students develop affective and social strategies, as well as intellectually related strategies, based on their individual learning styles, current strategy use, and specific goals." (Oxford, 1994)
Developing life-long learners who are intrinsically motivated, display intellectual curiosity, find learning enjoyable, and continue seeking knowledge after their formal instruction has ended has always been a major goal of education. (Small, 1997)
"Motivation is a fire from within. If someone
else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very
Stephen R. Covey
"... given motivation, it is inevitable that a human being will learn a second language if he is exposed to the language data." (Corder 1981:1)
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AN EDUCATION WORLD E-INTERVIEW WITH CAROL DWECK:
How Can Teachers Develop Students' Motivation -- and Success?
An exercise in Motivating yourself
A SELF CONCEPT-BASED MODEL OF WORK MOTIVATION
ASKERIC_ Motivation sites
A Tripartite Model of Motivation for Achievement: Attitude/Drive/Strategy
Bruce W. Tuckman, The Ohio State University
Brittanica- Article on Motivation
Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition- Intrinsic Motivation
DEMOS & CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES--MOTIVATION & EMOTION
Theories of motivation
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MOTIVATION
Get Up and Go - Motivation
Hard Work and High Expectations: Motivating Students to Learn
June 1992- U.S. Department of Education
How Is Language Acquired?
Increasing Student Engagement and Motivation: From Time-on-Task to
Cori Brewster & Jennifer Fager
NORTHWEST REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY
Krashen's Input Hypothesis Model of L2 learning
Language Learning Strategies: An Update
Rebecca Oxford, University of Alabama- October 1994
Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching
Motivation- by W. Huitt
Motivation- By leon Bantjes
Motivation- What Can I Do When I Get Discouraged?
Motivation as a Contributing Factor in Second Language Acquisition
Motivation in Instructional Design
by Ruth V. Small (1997)
Motivation, Where does it come from? Where does it go?
by Andrew Littlejohn
ENGLISH TEACHING professional, Issue 19, March 2001
Motivating Today's Students: The Same Old Stuff Just Doesn't Work
ERIC- By Linda Lumsden
Motivation and Transfer in Language Learning. ERIC Digest.
ERIC Identifier: ED427318
Publication Date: 1998
Author: Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa
Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics Dörnyei, Z., & Ottó, I. (1998). http://www-db.library.nottingham.ac.uk/ep1/documents/doc1/00/00/00/39/index.html
Motivation: Reopening the research agenda.
Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. (1991)
"Motivation is a fire from within. If someone
else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very
Stephen R. Covey
Motivation- 6 major factors
Motivation: Web Sites
Motivation in SLA- part 1
Motivational Quotations by Dale Carnegie
Motivation and Middle School Students. ERIC Digest.
Quick Motivation Test
Quotes for Teachers
Research Paper: Motivation in Second Language Education
Mike Conner- Iowa State University Ames, Iowa
School Leadership and Student Motivation. ERIC Digest, Number 71.
Second Language Acquisition Topics
Sources of Motivation Approaches
Strategies to Enhance Adult Motivation to Learn
by Raymond J. Wlodkowski
summarized from Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction
by Michael W. Galbraith, 1991
Student motivation to learn- ERIC database
Theories of motivation- activities
of affect in language learning with implications for teaching in Japan
Stella Yamasaki & Tatsuroh Yamasaki- Hosei University
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