By Nada Salem Abisamra
Dornyei (1994) suggests
- developing students' self-efficacy,
- decreasing their anxiety,
- promoting motivation-enhancing attributions,
- encouraging students to set attainable sub-goals, and
- increasing the attractiveness of course content.
Dornyei (1998:131) suggests
"Ten Commandments for Motivating Language Learners”
1. Set a personal example with your own behavior.
2. Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
3. Present the task properly.
4. Develop a good relationship with the learners.
5. Increase the learner's linguistic self-confidence.
6. Make the language classes interesting.
7. Promote learner autonomy.
8. Personalise the learning process.
9. Increase the learners' goal-orientedness.
10. Familiarise learners with the target language culture.
Oxford & Shearin (1996:139) also offer Practical Suggestions for Teachers:
1. Teachers can identify why students are studying the new language.
2. Teachers can help shape students' beliefs about success and failure in L2 learning.
- Teachers can find out actual motivations (motivation survey).
- Information on motivation can be passed on to the next class in a portfolio.
- Teachers can determine which parts of L2 learning are especially valuable for the students.
3. Teachers can help students improve motivation by showing that L2 learning can be an exciting mental challenge, a career enhancer, a vehicle to cultural awareness and friendship and a key to world peace.
- Students can learn to have realistic but challenging goals.
- Teachers can learn to accept diversity in the way students establish and meet their goals, based on differences in learning styles.
4. Teachers can make the L2 classroom a welcoming, positive place where psychological needs are met and where language anxiety is kept to a minimum.
5. Teachers can urge students to develop their own intrinsic rewards through positive self-talk, guided self-evaluation, and mastery of specific goals, rather than comparison with other students. Teachers can thus promote a sense of greater self-efficacy, increasing motivation to continue learning the L2.
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Page created on April 15, 2002 || Last updated on June 2, 2002
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