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Educational Psychology
Classical Conditioning
What is Classical Conditioning and how does it work...

           Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's
           environment. Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the
           capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.

           The way that this is all supposed to work is actually simple. First, an unconditioned stimulus is
           paired with a neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus is the one that is eliciting the
           unconditioned response. After a while, where this pairing is repeated many times, classical
           conditioning occurs. Now, the previous unconditioned stimulus is now the conditioned stimulus
           and can cause a conditioned response by itself. The unconditioned response and the conditioned
           response are essentially the same thing.

Basic Concepts in Classical Conditioning

               Since Pavlov's time in the beginning of this century, research on classical conditioning has increased to a complexity level that is hardly comprehensible but to a few experts in the various fields this science has spawned. On the neurobiological side, research has come to a point where the molecular events can be traced that lead to the long lasting modification of the synapses responsible for the learning behavior in the animal. On the systemic side, psychologists have devised a plethora of behavioral experiments, the sophistication of which has steadily increased over the decades. With this wealth of data it was possible to develop mathematical models that predict the empirical findings to a rather astonishing extent. Today, neuronal nets have incorporated these models and developed them further. From molecules to behavior - the simple concept of classical conditioning has lead to an overwhelmingly successful multi-level approach to investigate into the mechanisms of learning.

Operant Conditioning

Operant Conditioning and Behaviorism- An Historical Outline

Learning Theory     very good!


Operant Conditioning-
Schedules of Reinforcement/ Extinction, reinforcers and punishers...

Examples of Negative Reinforcement

Operant Conditioning used in Education- Instructional Strategies

http://www.utexas.edu/courses/svinicki/ald320/CCOC.html   excellent

Setting up Operant or Classical Conditioning Strategies

Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science

Differences Between Classical & Operant Conditioning:

    - Classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner.
    - Operant conditioning relies on the learner to actively participate in the learning process.

    - In operant conditioning reinforcers act as incentives for learning.
    - Classical conditioning, on the other hand, does not provide incentives.

Differences Between Classical & Operant Conditioning:

Classical conditioning just involves the pairing of stimuli and the association that results between the two. A behavior that would normally be the result of one stimulus becomes the result of the other also due to the association created. Pavlov's dogs salivating at the sound of the bell they'd come to associate with being fed is an example.
Operant conditioning requires that the subject perform some action (and that the action is either rewarded or punished to either encourage or dicourage the behavior.) It's usually used for behavior modification.

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