By Nada Salem

 Based on "Teaching Language in Context" by Alice Omaggio Hadley- 1993
& "Teaching Culture: Strategies for Intercultural Communication" by H. Ned Seelye- 1993

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"Communication is Culture, and Culture is Communication." 
Edward Hall

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Culture and communication are inseparable because culture not only dictates who talks to whom, about what, and how the communication proceeds, it also helps to determine how people encode messages, the meanings they have for messages, and the conditions and circumstances under which various messages may or may not be sent, noticed, or interpreted... the foundation of communication. (Samovar, Porter, & Jain, 1981) 


1- Definition: What is Culture?
           Why are language and culture inseparably connected?

2- Common Approaches to Teaching Culture

3- A Framework for Building Cultural Understanding
      A Framework for Learning/Teaching Culture

4- Planning Teaching for Cultural Understanding: Goals

5- Themes to use for Teaching Culture

6- Strategies & Techniques for Teaching Culture

Strategies: Techniques:
  • Cultural Islands
  • Culture Capsules
  • Culture Clusters
  • Culture Assimilators
  • Critical Incidents/Problem Solving
  • Culture Mini-Dramas
  • Audio–Motor Units
  • Cultoons
  • Media/Visuals
  • Celebrating Festivals
  • Kinesics and Body Language
  • Cultural Consciousness-Raising
  • Independent Activity Sheets
  • Cultural Artifacts/Artifact Study
  • Cultural Scavenger Hunt
  • Getting to Know your Classmates
  • Deriving Cultural Connotations
  • Hypothesis Refinement
  • Decreasing Stereotypic Perceptions (help students understand the dangers of unwarranted generalizations)
  • Using Proverbs in Teaching Cultural Understanding
  • Humor as a Component of Culture: Exploring Cross-Cultural Differences
  • Stimulating Discussion: Email & Listservs
  • 1. Information Sources
    2. Additional Activities
    A- Quizzes
    B- Action Logs
    C- Reformulation
    D- Noticing
    E- Prediction
    F- Research
    3. Selling Points
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    7- Lesson Plans for Teaching Culture  +
    A Standards-Based Thematic Unit Using the Learning Scenario as An Organizing Framework
    An ACTFL Issues Paper by Alfred N. Smith, Utah State University
    8- A Conceptual Model of Culture Learning

    9- Measuring Cross-Cultural Awareness & Changes in Attitudes

    10- Dealing with Students’ Negative Attitudes

    11- Practical Tips...

    12- List of Useful Books...

    13- References & Bibliography

    14- Relevant Internet Sites...

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    "Culture is the "glue" that binds a group of people together."
    (Douglas-Brown- 1994)

    "Culture is an elusive construct that shifts constantly over time and according to who is perceiving and interpreting it."
    (Linda Harklau- 1999)

    "Culture" is a broad concept that embraces all aspects of human life. It includes everything people learn to do. It is everything humans have learned. Culture shapes our thoughts and actions, and often does so with a heavy hand" (Seelye- 1984-1993). Of its several meanings, two are of major importance to teachers (according to Brooks, 1975*):

    • Hearthstone or "little-c" culture: Culture as everything in human life (also called culture BBV: Beliefs, Behavior, and Values)
    • Olympian or "big-C" culture:  the best in human life restricted to the elitists (also called culture MLA: great Music, Literature, and Art of the country).
    We should realize that knowing the language, as well as the patterns of everyday life, is a prerequisite to appreciating the fine arts and literature, therefore we need a balanced perspective of culture when designing curricula.

    The "big-C" Culture is already taught in the classroom; it is the "little-c" one that needs to be emphasized, especially in the FL classroom.

    According to the US senator, Paul Simon, "Knowledge of the world's languages and cultures is more vital than ever. In order to compete in the global community, we must be able to communicate effectively and to appreciate, understand, and be able to work in the framework of other cultures." In the past, culture used to be distinct from language; nowadays, it has become integral to it. If it is important to teach a foreign language to enhance communication, it is also vital to instill in students an intellectual and emotional appreciation of the culture of that foreign language, so that communication will not be impaired.

    Dewey (1897) said that "It is true that language is a logical instrument, but it is fundamentally and primarily a social instrument." If language is "primarily a social instrument," how can it be divorced from the society that uses it? (Seelye p. 4)

    Jay (1968) argued that "Bilingualism is not in itself the answer to cultural understanding among people... With knowledge of the language must exist a similar knowledge of the social, religious, and economic attitudes of a people." (Seelye p. 6)

    Learning a language in isolation of its cultural roots prevents one from becoming socialized into its contextual use. Knowledge of linguistic structure alone does not carry with it any special insight into the political, social, religious, or economic system. Or even insight into when you should talk and when you should not. (Seelye 1993, p 10).

    "The study of language cannot be divorced from the study of culture, and vice-versa (Seelye p. 22).

    "A language is part of a culture and culture is part of language; the two are intricately interwoven so that one cannot separate the two without losing the significance of either language or culture."
    (Douglas-Brown- 1994)

    Why language and culture are inseparably connected (Buttjes 1990, p. 55):
    (Buttjes, D. (1990). Teaching foreign language and culture: Social impact and political significance. Language Learning Journal, 2, 53-57.)

    1- Language acquisition does not follow a universal sequence, but differs across cultures;
    2- The process of becoming a competent member of society is realized through exchanges of language in particular social situations;
    3- Every society orchestrates the ways in which children participate in particular situations, and this, in turn, affects the form, the function and the content of children's utterances;
    4- Caregivers' primary concern is not with grammatical input, but with the transmission of sociocultural knowledge;
    5- The native learner, in addition to language, acquires also the paralinguistic patterns and the kinesics of his or her culture. (Buttjes, 1990, p. 55)

    Commonly used Facts Approaches for teaching culture:
    (Galloway- 1985)

         A) The Frankenstein Approach: A taco from here, a flamenco dancer from
              here, a Gacho from here, a bullfight from there
         B) The  4-F approach: Folk dances, festivals, fairs and food
         C) Tour Guide Approach: Monuments, rivers, cities, etc.
         D) “By-The-Way” Approach: Sporadic lectures or bits of behavior selected

               indiscriminately to emphasize sharp differences

    A Framework for Building Cultural Understanding
    - based on process skills
    - includes both factual & socio-linguistic content.
    (Galloway- 1984)
    Four dimensions:

    1- Convention: Students need to recognize and understand how people in a given culture typically behave in common, everyday situations.

    2- Connotation: Students need to know the significant meanings that are associated with words.

    3- Conditioning: Students need to know that people act in a manner consistent with their cultural frame of reference, and that all people respond in culturally conditioned ways to basic human needs.

    4- Comprehension: Students need the skills of analysis, hypothesis formation, and tolerance of ambiguity.

    A Framework for Learning/Teaching Culture

    A) Knowing about (getting information)

    1) Nature of content -- getting information
    - what is the capital of the US?
    - sports play an important role in American life.
    2) Learning objectives -- demonstrate a mastery of the information.
    3) Techniques/activities -- cultural readings; films/videotapes; recordings; realia (cultural artifacts); personal anecdotes.
    4)  Note
    - how culture is traditionally taught -- giving students information and asking them to show that they know it;
    - teacher role: informant.
    B) Knowing how (developing behaviors)
    1) Nature of content -- skills
    - buying tickets to a sports event,
    - cheering for your team at a football game,
    - acting and speaking like American sports fans.
    2) Learning objectives: demonstrate an ability -- a fluency, an expertise, confidence, ease.
    3) Techniques/activities: dialogs, role plays, simulations, field experiences.
    4) Note
    - where communicative competence in the language and culture occurs. Students know both what to say and how to do it in a
    culturally appropriate manner.
    - teacher role: coach or model.
    C). Knowing why (discovering explanations)
    1) Nature of content -- values and assumptions
    - why are sports so important to Americans?
    - are you making an observation or an interpretation?
    - why do Americans have such sports rituals?
    - how does this compare with your culture?
    2) Learning objectives
    - demonstrate an ability: to infer; to generalize; to suspend judgment,
    - curiosity; tolerance; sensitivity; empathy.
    3) Techniques/activities
    - learners interpret and make explanations based on above activities,
    - comparisons with their own culture,
    - ethnography,
    - reflective writing.
    4) Note
    - learners engage in actively using their powers of induction, analysis and intuition to draw conclusions about cultural information or experiences -- like anthropologists.
    - teacher role: co-researcher or guide.
    D) Knowing oneself (personalizing knowledge)
    1) Nature of content -- self-awareness
    - what importance do sports have in YOUR life?
    - how did it feel to act like Americans do at a football game?
    - would you choose to act like this?
    2) Learning objectives: by behavior/statements demonstrate understanding of ones' feelings, values, opinions, attitudes, and
    act upon them.
    3) Techniques/activities
    - learners examine and make statements about themselves,
    - reflective writing,
    - feedback on above activities.
    4) Note
    - learners themselves are the subject matter in a process of guided self-discovery, as they study their own values and their
    reactions to those of the culture. They decide whether or not to change.
    - teacher role: counselor or guide.
    By Patrick Moran
    Department of Language Teacher Education- School for International Training
    Brattleboro, VT, USA

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    We have already concluded that teaching culture needs to be integrated in the curriculum of the foreign language. Teachers do indeed need to teach students a few critical skills that can help them develop and improve the quality of their intercultural communication, that can help them "get their feet wet in the waters of another culture." (Seelye 1993, preface) However, it is not easy to determine what to teach. The "big-C" or the "little-c" culture? And within each type of culture, what should teachers focus on? Teachers already have an overcrowded curriculum and they are not adequately trained to teach culture. How do they decide on the skills to teach? Just as every other discipline has focus and goals, the solution to teachers' problems would be to define the skills that students need to acquire when it comes to learning a FL, the skills that students need in order to increase their ability to communicate across cultures. Here are some goals, devised by Seelye in 1974 and refined in 1993, that will help teachers select cultural data that will increase student skill in intercultural communication.

    To teach culture for understanding, teachers should achieve the following Goals: (Seelye, 1984 & 1993)
    (The following 6 goals are a modification of the Nostrands' "kinds of understanding to be tested")

    Goal 1 = Interest- The student demonstrates curiosity about the target culture and empathy toward its people.

    Goal 2 = Who- The student recognizes that role expectations and other social variables such as age, sex, social class, ethnicity, and place of residence affect the way people speak and behave.

    Goal 3 = What- The student realizes that effective communication requires discovering the culturally conditioned images that are evoked in the minds of people when they think, act, and react to the world around them.

    Goal 4 = Where and When- The student recognizes that situational variables and convention shape behavior in important ways. (S/he needs to know how people in the target culture act in common mundane and crisis situations)

    Goal 5 = Why- The student understands that people generally act the way they do because they are using options society allows for satisfying basic physical and psychological needs, and that cultural patterns are interrelated and tend mutually to support need satisfaction.

    Goal 6 = Exploration- The student can evaluate a generalization about the target culture in terms of the amount of evidence substantiating it, and has the skills needed to locate and organize information about the target culture from the library, the mass media, people, and personal observation.

    The Nostrands* listed nine objectives: students should have the ability to

         1) React appropriately in a social situation
         2) Describe a pattern in the culture
         3) Recognize a pattern when it is illustrated
         4) “Explain” a pattern
         5) Predict how a pattern is likely to apply in a given situation
         6) Describe or manifest an attitude important for making oneself
             acceptable in the foreign society
         7) Evaluate the form of a statement concerning a culture pattern
         8) Describe/demonstrate defensible methods of analyzing a
             socio-cultural whole
         9) Identify basic human purposes that make significant the
             understanding that is being taught

    Various versions of these steps have been made, with more or less the same goals and expectations for students.

    (*Nostrand, F.B. & Nostrand, H.L.. 1970. Testing Understanding of the Foreign Culture//Seelye, H.N. ed. Perspectives for Teachers of Latin American Culture. Springfield, IL: Office of Public Instruction, 123-127.)

    Problems involved in teaching culture:

    The First problem teachers are facing is: Overcrowded Curriculum.
    The study of culture involves time that many teachers feel they cannot spare in an already overcrowded curriculum; they content themselves with the thought that students will be exposed to cultural material later, after they have mastered the basic grammar and vocabulary of the language.
    Solution: Teachers should be made aware of the fact that this "later" never seems to come for most students. Therefore, instead of teaching language and culture in a Serial fashion, they should teach them in an integrative fashion.

    The Second problem teachers are facing is: Fear of Not Knowing Enough.
    Teachers are afraid to teach culture because they fear that they don’t know enough about it, thinking that their role is only to impart facts.
    Solution: Even if teachers’ own knowledge is quite limited, their proper role is not to impart facts, but to help students attain the skills that are necessary to make sense out of the facts they themselves discover in their study of the target culture. Then, the objectives that are to be achieved in cross-cultural understanding involve Processes rather than Facts. A "facts only" approach to culture for which the only goal is to amass bits of information is ineffective.

    The Third problem teachers are facing is: Dealing with Students’ Negative Attitudes.
    When cultural phenomena differ from what they expect, students often react negatively, characterizing the target culture as "strange".
    Solution: Just as teachers need to help students revise their "linguistic patterns," they also need to help them revise their "cultural patterns."

    The Fourth problem teachers are facing is: Lack of Adequate Training.
    Teachers may not have been adequately trained in the teaching of culture and, therefore, do not have strategies and clear goals that help them to create a viable framework for organizing instruction around cultural themes.
    Solution: Check the aforementioned goals and the "belowmentioned" themes and strategies.

    The Fifth problem teachers are facing is: How to Measure Cross-Cultural Awareness and Change in Attitudes.
    It is very difficult for teachers to measure cross-cultural awareness and change in attitudes so that they can see whether the students have profited or not.
    Solution :

    Measuring Cross-Cultural Awareness :
    Hanvey’s (1979) scheme for measuring cross-cultural awareness consists of four stages :

    • Level I : Information about the culture may consist of superficial stereotypes.

    • Learners see the culture as bizarre. Culture bearers may be considered rude and ignorant.
    • Level II : Learners focus on expanded knowledge about the culture (contrast with their own culture). They find the culture bearers’ behavior irrational.
    • Level III : Learners begin to accept the culture at an intellectual level and can see things in terms of the target culture’s frame of reference.
    • Level IV : The level of empathy is achieved through living in and through the culture. Learners begin to see the culture as insiders.
    Measuring Change in Attitudes :
    There are four techniques to measure attitudes :
    • Social distance scales : To measure the degree to which one separates oneself socially from members of another culture (e.g. would marry .. , have as close friend, have as next-door neighbor, work with, have as an acquaintance only…)
    • Semantic differential scales : To judge the defined culture group in terms of a number of bipolar traits (e.g. Good/Bad, Clean/Dirty….)
    • Statements : To put a check in front of the statements with which s/he agrees. (e.g. Envious of others, Tactless, Self-indulgent, Quick to understand…)
    • Self-esteem change : To measure changes in self-esteem in the primary grades (e.g. happy with myself, at home, at school, my teacher/friends like me….)
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    The main Themes of the culture might be: symbolism, value, authority, order, ceremony, love, honor, humor, beauty, and spirit, in addition to intellectuality, individualism, the art of living, realism, common sense, friendship, family, justice, liberty, patriotism, religion, education, conflict, ecology … "Theme" in teaching culture is not just any "topic"; rather it is an "emotionally charged concern, which motivates or strongly influences the culture bearer’s conduct in a wide variety of situations."

    Brooks identified ten points around which culture could be based:
    1) Symbolism 2) Value 3) Authority 4) Order 5) Ceremony 6) Love 7) Honor
    8) Humor 9) Beauty 10) Spirit
    He suggested teaching different points at different times.

     "There is... a tendency for us to believe
    that our own reality is the “correct” perception......What appears to you to be an accurate and objective perception of a person, a custom, an idea, is sometimes “jaded” or “stilted” in the view of someone from another culture." (Douglas-Brown- 1994)

    In order to translate the goals for teaching culture into classroom practice, we need to follow specific Strategies and Techniques:


  • Cultural Islands
  • Culture Capsules
  • Culture Clusters
  • Culture Assimilators
  • Critical Incidents/Problem Solving
  • Culture Mini-Dramas
  • Audio–Motor Units
  • Cultoons
  • Media/Visuals
  • Celebrating Festivals
  • Kinesics and Body Language
  • Cultural Consciousness-Raising
  • Independent Activity Sheets
  • Cultural Artifacts/Artifact Study
  • Cultural Scavenger Hunt
  • Getting to Know your Classmates
  • Deriving Cultural Connotations
  • Hypothesis Refinement
  • Decreasing Stereotypic Perceptions
  • Using Proverbs in Teaching Cultural Understanding
  • Humor as a Component of Culture: Exploring Cross-Cultural Differences
  • Stimulating Discussion: Email & Listservs

  • Lesson Plans by Grade Level

    Lessons that provide students with opportunities to reflect on the cultural patterns that shape their perceptions. Activities are included to help students develop awareness of the many groups to which they belong and to build appreciation for the diverse cultures that share the planet.

    The activities included in this section address these goals by helping students identify the factors that shape their individual views, promoting active appreciation for diversity in their classroom and world communities, and providing tools for analyzing information sources. Teachers are encouraged to review all the activities and to select or adapt the materials that are most appropriate for their students.


    A Standards-Based Thematic Unit Using the Learning Scenario as An Organizing Framework
    An ACTFL Issues Paper by Alfred N. Smith, Utah State University

    A Conceptual Model of Culture Learning:

    Earlier models (Brooks, 1975; Nostrand, 1974) tended to view culture as a relatively invariate and static entity made up of accumulated, classifiable, observable, thus eminently teachable and learnable "facts." This perspective focused on surface level behavior, but did not look at the underlying value orientations, nor did it recognize the variability of behavior within the target cultural community, the participative role of the individual in the creation of culture, or the interaction of language and culture in the making of meaning (Moore, 1991). By contrast, the more recent models mentioned above see culture as dynamic and variable, i.e., it is constantly changing, its members display a great range of behaviors and different levels of attention to the guiding value orientations, and meaning is continuously being constructed through human interaction and communication. This major transformation in perspective has also been characterized by conceptual shifts from culture-specific to culture-general models of intercultural competence, cultural stereotypes to cultural generalizations, cultural absolutes to cultural variations (within and across cultures), and culture as distinct from language to culture as integral to language. Language in this process plays a fascinating and complex double role: it is a medium for as well as shaper of culture.

    Definition of culture learning:

    "Culture learning is the process of acquiring the culture-specific and culture-general knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for effective communication and interaction with individuals from other cultures. It is a dynamic, developmental, and ongoing process which engages the learner cognitively, behaviorally, and affectively."

    Culture learning goals and outcomes:

    In this newer perspective, the learning goals shift from the memorization of cultural facts (including sociolinguistic conventions for language use) to higher order learning outcomes including: the acquisition of "interactional competence" (a term suggested by Allen and Moore at the 1996 culture conference in Minneapolis) and learning how to learn about culture. According to Paige (1997), such learning would include:

    1. learning about the self as a cultural being,
    2. learning about culture and its impact on human communication, behavior, and identity,
    3. culture-general learning, i.e., learning about universal, cross-cultural phenomena such as cultural adjustment,
    4. culture-specific learning, i.e., learning about a particular culture, including its language, and,
    5. learning how to learn, i.e., becoming an effective language and culture learner.
     A Conceptual Model of Culture Learning
    By Michael Paige, Helen Jorstad, Laura Siaya, Francine Klein, Jeanette Colby

    A. Knowledge
    1. Culture-General: Intercultural Phenomena
      • cultural adjustment stages
      • culture shock
      • intercultural development 
      • culture learning
      • cultural identity
      • cultural marginality
    2. Culture Specific 
      • "little c" target culture knowledge
      • "Big C" target culture knowledge
      • pragmatics
      • sociolinguistic competence
    B. Behavior
    1. Culture General: Intercultural Skills
      • culture learning strategies
      • coping and stress management strategies
      • intercultural communicative competence
      • intercultural perspective-taking skills
      • cultural adaptability 
      • transcultural competence
    2. Culture Specific: Target Culture Skills
      • little "c" culture-appropriate everyday behavior
      • Big "C" culture-appropriate contextual behavior
    C. Attitudes
    1. Culture General 
      • positive attitude toward different cultures 
      • positive attitude toward culture learning
      • ethnorelative attitude regarding cultural differences
    2. Culture Specific
      • positive attitude toward target culture
      • positive attitude toward target culture persons

    Culture Learning in Language Education: A Review of the Literature
    Michael Paige, Helen Jorstad, Laura Siaya, Francine Klein, Jeanette Colby

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        Only by personalizing activities and content can we hope to lead students to better cultural understanding. We can start off by talking about a distant country, but this will only result in stereotyping if we do not allow students to relate the same issues to their own lives. And as every language teacher knows, students love to talk about themselves.

        Activities, not just 'Discussion'
        I was reading a book on teaching culture recently and had to laugh at one activity. 'Step 1 - introduce the material. Step 2 - Lead a lively discussion.' This is probably possible with some high-level students in some parts of the world, but for most foreign-language students, instant lively discussion is an unlikely scenario. We have found that activities with simple instructions and a clear goal such as quizzes or surveys are very successful even with low-level learners. It is very easy to extend such activities into open-ended discussions if the opportunity arises. On the other hand, it is often impossible to transform open-ended 'discussion' activities (usually with no clear goal) into activities which work effectively with low-level learners.

        Suitable Level of Difficulty
        Know your students. Even though you may see yourself primarily as a teacher of culture, if you are working with EFL students, you must constantly remember that they probably will not understand everything that you say. It is not necessary that they understand every word and indeed a challenge is wonderful for learning, but consistently using material or a way of speaking that is too difficult is a sure way to make students lose their interest in a target-culture.

        Make It Interesting
        Of course, the culture is interesting to you, so you presume that it will be interesting for your students. However, imagine sometimes that you are studying the culture of a foreign country, one that you may have no intention of visiting. Pick out the interesting aspects of a culture and present them in a way that will engage students. By using the variety of approaches described above to create cultural texture and by employing your own enthusiasm, you should also be able to create an exciting class for your students.

        Students learn more in groups. They have more opportunities for using the target language, discussing the target culture, and gaining additional perspectives on their own cultural.

        Don't Try to Cover Everything
        You can't. A culture is enormous. It consists of all the institutions, all the behavior, in fact all the man-made aspects of a very large group of non-homogeneous people. All that we can do is provide some pathways to enter into learning more about the culture. After all, we never know everything about our own culture. We should not be disappointed that we cannot teach everything but rather be happy that we are able to raise intercultural awareness at all.

        Learn Your Students' Language and Culture and Understand Your Own Cultural Baggage
        One of the oddest things in the world must be a language teacher who only speaks one language or a culture teacher who only knows one culture. We are so immersed in our own culture that we can only understand it by trying to see it from the outside. Imposing our own values without making an attempt to understand our students' values is imperialistic and arrogant. We must remember that intercultural understanding runs both ways.

        Practical Techniques for Teaching Culture in the EFL Classroom
        Brian Cullen


        There is no question that the successful integration of culture and language teaching can contribute significantly to general humanistic knowledge, that language ability and cultural sensitivity can play a vital role in the security, defense, and economic well-being of any country, and that global understanding ought to be a mandatory component of basic education.

        * Brooks, N. 1975. The analysis of foreign and familiar cultures. In Lafayette, R. (ed.). The Culture Revolution in Foreign Language Teaching. Skokie, Illinois: National Textbook Company.

        Buttjes, D. (1990). Teaching foreign language and culture: Social impact and political significance. Language Learning Journal, 2, 53-57.

        Finnocchario M. (1964), English as a second language: From theory to practice. New York: Simon and Schuster

        Nostrand, F.B. & Nostrand, H.L.. 1970. Testing Understanding of the Foreign Culture//Seelye, H.N. ed. Perspectives for Teachers of Latin American Culture. Springfield, IL: Office of Public Instruction, 123-127.

        Lafayette, R.C. (1978), Teaching Culture: Strategies and Techniques, Virginia: Arlington.

        Lafayette, R. (1988). Integrating the teaching of culture into the foreign language classroom. In Allan J. Singerman (Ed.)., Towards a new integration of language and culture. Reports of the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Middlebury, VT: The Northeast Conference.

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    Page created on April 25, 2001 | Last updated on May 10, 2009
    Copyright © 2001-2009 Nada Salem Abisamra

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