American University of Beirut
Education  230
January 1998


Presented by : Nada Salem Abisamra


1) We have to teach students to …
2) Five habits of mind  : for teachers
3) Five habits of mind  : for students
4) Models for teaching
5) Elements to consider
6) Delivering an effective direct-instruction lesson
7) Direct-instruction model : Lesson plan format
8) Lesson Plan : Direct-Instruction Model
9) Two approaches to teaching concepts
10) Strategies for instruction
11) Teaching philosophy
12) Goals for teachers

We Have to Teach  Students to

Think for themselves,
Fulfill their potential,
Be creative,
Gain self esteem,
Be ready for this productive world .

Five Habits of Mind : For Teachers

Developing teachers  must learn to consider these Five Habits of Mind
in order to make defensible decisions in their practice.

The habits of mind interact, so there is no set order in which they must be considered.

Teachers need to think about :

The Learners with whom they are working;
      How does the learner’s background , experience , and mode of
      learning relate to the teacher’s decision making ?

The Contexts of the classroom, school and community;
      What impact does the physical , psychological , and social
      environment have on instructional decision making ?

The Curriculum they will be teaching;
      What are the implications of the selection of content ,
       materials , and experiences ?

The Methods of Instruction they will use;
       What models , strategies , and techniques for teaching and
       learning will match the characteristics of the learners and
       instructional goals ?

How they will Assess the learning that goes on;
       How can we observe and make judgments about student
      learning in fair , accurate ways that also improve instruction ?

Five Habits of Mind : For Students

There are Five Habits of Mind we should develop in our students.

Students need to ask themselves :

- How do we know what we think we know?
 What's our evidence? How credible is it?

- Whose viewpoint are we hearing, reading, seeing?
  What other viewpoints might there be if we changed our
   position , our perspective?

- How is one thing connected to another?
  Is there a pattern here?

- How else might it have been?
  What if? Supposing that?

- What difference does it make?
  Who cares?

Models for Teaching

There are many models for teaching the disciplines and/or ideas of humankind.
There may be as many models for teaching these structures as there are people.

The primary purpose of this course is to promote as many introductory
experiences, with well established models as possible. As we have these
experiences , we can realize that some models are more to our liking than others
and this is perhaps due to the way we learn best.
Each one of us has a pattern for learning and this pattern has evolved from our
background experiences.

Therefore , each student-teacher has to learn as many different models for
teaching as he or she can , so that a greater pedagogical success can evolve .

Elements to Consider

Whatever model of teaching or method of instruction we use, there are certain elements we
ought to consider.

A model of teaching makes sense because it is appropriate for the objective or goal of the
For example, it makes no sense to choose the presentation (lecture) model to get students to
explore their feelings about an issue.
Thus, models are not interchangeable--they make sense only if they
contribute to what we want students to learn.

Each model has implications for how we should structure the classroom environment, which
goes beyond a seating arrangement. We can easily lecture to kids sitting passively in rows; the
same arrangement (and passivity) would be deadly to a cooperative learning activity.
So, we need to consider the implications for our classroom in using a given model.

Finally, each model has a syntax, or series of steps to follow.
For example, when we teach a direct instruction lesson (which is appropriate for teaching
procedural knowledge or skills), we have to be certain to include guided practice.

As we learn models, we need to examine the elements and note the distinctions among them.

Delivering an Effective DIRECT INSTRUCTION Lesson

This is sometimes called direct teaching. It's probably what most people think of when they
imagine a teacher.
The teacher gives a clear explanation of how to do something , and the student observes,
practices, and eventually masters this skill.
One advantage of the direct instruction model over the presentation model (lecture )is that there
is a built-in guarantee that students will be doing something.
Otherwise, the models are fairly similar.

Objectives : Direct instruction is appropriate for teaching a procedural objective, such as
having students be able to diagram a sentence, conduct an experiment, create a piece of pottery,
and so on.

Syntax : Recommended order for developing a good direct instruction lesson:
1.  Provide an anticipatory set.
2. Communicate our objectives (through a statement, question, or
   some other means). We might tell them what they will be able to
   do at the end of the lesson that they cannot do now.
3. Demonstrate the skill. This means we have to do it. If we are
    teaching them to throw a pot (art), then we need to walk them
    through the steps, articulating what we do as we go.
   As a rule, it is more effective if we list those steps for the
    students (on the board, in a handout, etc.).
4. Provide guided practice. This means the students try out what
    we've taught them, but they do so under our careful guidance.
    WE walk around to monitor what they are doing.
    Remember, if they practice it wrong, they'll have a much more
    difficult time learning the right way.
5. Check for understanding and provide feedback. They need to
    know if they are doing it right.
6. Provide for independent practice. This generally means
    homework, though sometimes this is not possible, due to
7. Provide closure. Review the steps of the process.

Environment : Like presentation, this is a teacher-dominated form of instruction. The
environment reflects this, though the students' practicing is a refreshing break from the teacher

Effects : Students should be able to DO whatever procedure you have taught them.
A secondary effect is that you instill confidence in students.
They leave a good direct instruction lesson with a sense of confidence that they can do

Lesson Plan Format

Stated in behavioral terms - “ by (insert time or date), the learner will (insert verb phrase
showing what the student will do) with (insert percentage %) accuracy, as measured by (insert
evaluation format).  ”

     Prepares student for the lesson ,
     Refers to knowledge learned in previous lessons ,
     Previews new lesson , often with a question.
         The Objective is often directly stated to the students.
     Instruction presented by the teacher to the whole class or
     group - actual teaching .
     Students try out information presented in the lesson under the
     direct guidance of the teacher.
    Immediate feedback is given to the student
     Students practice information in larger blocks, either in the
     presence of the teacher, with more at home (homework).
    Feedback on correctness should follow as close to the lesson as
     Teacher and students restate the objective

 Evaluation of the materials completed or discussion related to
 the objective

Lesson Plan:
Direct-Instruction Model

1-  Planning the Lesson
1.1   Topic     “Conditional Sentences”
1.2   Objectives
 a - Content :
                Students will know the difference between the
             indicative and conditional moods .
             Students will be able to use the verbs in  conditional
             sentences ( 1st and 2nd types ) accurately .
             Students will be able to justify the use of the tenses
             in conditional sentences (1st and 2nd types ).
  b - Process :
                           Students will observe then answer questions , give
                       examples , practice , correct  ….
       They will be actively involved and will assume more
                       responsibility as the lesson progresses .
1.3  Prerequisite Knowledge
          Indicative Mood with all its tenses
         + Irregular Verbs
         + Modals
1.4  Selected Examples
1)   If you study you (will ) succeed
2)   If you studied you would succeed
             [ In addition to the examples the students could give]

2 -  Implementing the Lesson
 [ I would like first to mention a few things :
Course Name    = English as a third language
Grade    = 10th
Time   = 100 minutes
Number of students  = 20          ]

2.1   Lesson Introduction

- “Good morning everyone , how are you today ? Are you ready to start the lesson ?”
- “Yes miss !”said the students all together .
- “ Excellent ! Then let’s start ……
As you recall , we have been studying the tenses in the indicative mood for the last two months ; who can tell me what this mood expresses ? …… Tony ?”
- “ REALITY !” said Tony enthusiastically .
- “ Good , Tony , and how do you know that ?”
- “ I know it because when I say for example ‘I am talking now ’,it is an action in the indicative mood and it expresses something that is really happening .”
- “ Very well …What else can you tell me about this mood ? …… Sonia?”
- “ You taught us to think logically when we use the tenses ”.
- “ Yes, I really did , good Sonia ! … You know , once you study the tenses and the different moods logically , you find them very easy and you never forget them .
Now , let’s switch to something else : it’s the Conditional Mood  and, especially , its application in Conditional sentences .
I can tell you something , once you have grasped this mood and its use , you will be able to avoid all those grammar mistakes in your essays !”

2.2   Lesson Presentation

- “ I would like to start with something very important : unlike the indicative mood , the conditional mood does not express reality ! It expresses a condition _ you can tell from its name .
( Here the teacher goes to the chalkboard and writes : )
 e.g. If you study you will succeed
What do you need in order to succeed ? You need to study ; so studying is the condition for success to take place .
Now about the sentences ; there are three major types of conditional sentences ……today we’ll study the first two .
Who can give me the first one ?………Yes , Mira ?”
- “ You’ve just given it to us , miss ,‘If you study you will succeed.’ ”
- “ So we can say that : if + present =>  future
- “ Miss, can’t we say ‘If you study you succeed ’ ?” asked Marcel .
- “ Yes we can , Marcel , but there will be a slight change in meaning . When you say ‘If you study you will succeed ’, you are talking to someone specific , and the time is specific ; but when you use the simple present tense in the main clause , you are talking in general ; the time is not specific .
Now what about the second type , do you know anything about it? ……… Cynthia ?
- “ If + Simple Past => would + ……”
- “ …Incomplete infinitive ! ” interrupted Raja .
- “ Good Raja , but you should have let Cynthia answer ! ”
So the example will be ‘ If you studied you would succeed ’.
What is the difference between the first and second types …………
Samar ?”
- “ The action in the first one is in the present while the action in the second one is in the past . ”
- “ This is what I want you to pay attention to ! No , contrary to what everyone usually thinks , when we use the simple past in the conditional sentences the action always and only refers to the present tense .
So what is the difference between the two types ?
The difference , dear students , is that in the first type we don’t know anything about the person we are talking to , about the fact , while in the second type we know that the fact is different from the if clause .
(The teacher goes back to the board and writes )
1)  If you study (now) you will succeed
               [what is implied here is that I don’t know anything about
                the fact ]
2)  If you studied (now) you would succeed
               [what is implied here is that I know you are not
                studying ,the fact is different from the If clause ]
              => BUT you are not studying  ”

2.3   Guided Practice + Feedback

 - “O.K. now , let’s practice whatever we’ve just learned .
 [ The teacher gives them a handout on which there is an  exercise on conditional sentences : 1st and 2nd types ; they have to put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense and to justify the use of the tenses .
 While the students are doing the exercise , the teacher passes by them , answers questions and corrects in case there is something wrong .
 Then they correct the exercise all together . ]

2.4  Closure

- “ Now that you have practised the use of the first two types of conditional sentences , how can you summarize what you’ve learned today ………Samir ?
- “ We have learned the conditional mood , what it expresses , and the first two types of conditional sentences .”
- “ What is the most important difference between these two types …………Salim ?”
-“ The fact in the second type is different from the If clause while in the first one we don’t know anything about it .”
- “ Does anyone of the two types refer to the past ……… Aileen ?”
- “ No , both of them refer to the present .”
- “ Excellent , you seem to have understood everything . Now so that you consolidate whatever you’ve learnt , I will give you a homework assignment .”

 2.5   Independent Practice

 [ The teacher gives the students a homework assignment to promote retention , automaticity and transfer .
 Exercise : ‘Finish the following sentences using the first or second types of conditional sentences , then justify the use of the type .’  ]

3 - Assessing Student Learning :

  Individual Test :

       Write a paragraph of  15 lines (150 words) on the following
       topic :
               “ What would you do if you had only one year to live?”

By Nada AbiSamra


Two Approaches to Teaching Concepts

Inductive strategy : (Inductive, Concept-Attainment and Integrative Models)
   1.Present the best example first, name it, and ask questions to
      elicit the attributes students think might be important to the
   2.Present a second example for comparison and have students
      compare the two to test which attributes are criterial and
      which are noncriterial.
   3.Present additional examples and nonexamples, engaging
      students in discussion of the attributes and sorting the
      noncriterial from the criterial.
   4.List the attributes and ask questions intended to have the
      students verbalize the concept rule or definition (X are ___?).
   5.Assess learning by presenting new examples and nonexamples
      and seeing if students can sort them into the proper categories.
   6.Assess by introducing a related concepts and comparing it to
      that just learned.
[Note: this process can also begin with a problem, that is, a position of psychological doubt, that moves students to seek an answer to the puzzle or mystery posed.]

Deductive strategy : ( Direct-Instruction and Lecture-Discussion Models )
   1.Present the best example first, define it, and list the attributes
      most important to the concept.
   2.Present a second example for comparison and indicate which
      attributes are criterial and which are noncriterial.
   3.Provide additional examples and through practice and
      feedback, ensure that students understand criterial and
      noncriterial attributes.
   4.Assess learning in the same way as above.

Strategies for Instruction

          There can always be a range of abilities in the same class,
          and sometimes that range is wide.
          Instruction has to be such that students at all levels of
          thinking can be included , and the materials and activities
          must be open ended to enable all students to participate.

Tips on including all students in class work:

      1)  Teaching Techniques

 - Speak slowly and clearly, but not loudly.
 - Make the consequences for successful performance attractive.
- Share the completion of the student's work with another adult or
   peer in the class, or with an interested person outside the
 - Use concrete manipulative materials to develop whole concepts.
 - Photocopy notes if the student is unable to write clearly.
- Encourage peers to assist in thinking of ways in which the
  student can accomplish a task: "How can Steven do this
 - Invite the student to assist in lesson presentation, by
   participating in brainstorming, for example, or by giving out
 - Provide a print outline of the main points that the student is to
   learn from listening to the lesson, reading a passage in a book,
   listening to a tape, or watching a video, with blanks to be filled
   in as the information is given.
  - Allow the student extra time for assignments and tests.
  - Recognize the length of time that the student can stay on task,
    then provide opportunities for breaks and teach the student an
    acceptable way to ask for a break.
  - Use different color chalks and felt pens to emphasize
     important points, and to make it easier for the student to find
     her place on the board or paper.
   - Use highly contrasting colors.
   - Enlarge the print.
   - Glue the steps of an operation inside the front cover of the
     student's book for easy reference.
   - Provide a print copy of the text so that the examples can be
     done on the sheet. Often, errors occur when the student copies
     and much time is used up. The examples can be enlarged if
     more space is required for the answers. One or two questions
     can be presented at a time to make the task less threatening.
   - Provide written instructions of the steps to be followed to
     complete a task.
   - Provide picture instructions of the steps to be followed to
     complete a task.
   - Organize the student's materials ahead of time.
   - When appropriate, offer a choice of two or three materials or
   - Structure the sequence of activities.

           2)  Adapt the Goals

   - Simplify the vocabulary in the questions.
   - Simplify the reading materials by highlighting the main points
     in the textbook or handouts so that the student can get the
     main ideas.
   - Provide general reading on the same topic of study, but at the
     appropriate reading level.
   - Use the same materials and work, but teach concrete rather
     than abstract concepts, or simpler rather than more
     complicated concepts.
   - Change the criteria for successful performance.
   - Assign smaller amounts of work.
   - Substitute a similar but easier task.
   - Substitute a prerequisite task on the same topic.
   - Clarify the task directions.
   - Restate in simpler language.
   - Ask a peer to repeat the directions.
   - Provide only one or two directions at a time.
   - Explain unfamiliar terms.
   - Write directions on the board in front of the student.
   - Write directions on a small board or piece of paper on the
     student's desk.
   - Record directions on tape so that they can be listened to one at
     a time.
   - Use hand signals or signing for the student who has a hearing
   - Provide directions in Braille for the student who has a visual
   - Stand close to the student and gain eye contact before giving

            3)  Change the Task Characteristics

    - Tape record the answers.
    - Make a chart, model, or collage.
    - Decorate a bulletin board.
    - Make a time line.
    - Interview a person using a questionnaire.
    - Interview a person using a tape recorder.
    - Shoot a "TV show" using a video camera.
    - Prepare a radio or TV commercial.
    - Act out a play, skit or mime show.
    - Give an oral presentation using a prepared chart of pictures or
      photographs, or picture cue cards.
    - Provide a scribe.
    - Use a calculator.
    - Use pictures to illustrate work.
    - Provide a computer printout.

            4)  Provide Prompts

          Teachers use prompts or cues for all students. Some students
          require a more intense level of prompting in order to
          accomplish a task.

          Prompts should be given in the least intrusive way, and with
          the intention of fading them as soon as possible. This is
          necessary so that the student does not become bound by the
          prompt. A student may begin to think he is not allowed to do
          the next part of a task until the prompt has been given. If
          the prompting is constant and static it may discourage the
          student from trying the next step of the process.

          Gradually move through levels of prompts as the student
          begins to master each task.

            1.Physically assist the student to do the task.
            2.Then give what physical assistance is necessary to
               complete the task.
            3.Give a gesture, or model the task, so that the student
               can copy the action.
            4.Give a direct verbal prompt, such as: "Pick up your
            5.Give an indirect verbal prompt, such as: "What do you
               do next?"

          Students who are provided with support from a teacher
          assistant or a volunteer sometimes rely on that person to
          give the direction, rather than responding to the direction
          when it is given by the teacher.
          The teacher can make it clear that when he/she addresses
          the whole class the student is included.
          It may be necessary to cue the student that a direction is
          about to be given and that it is time to listen.

           5)  How to Deal with Tasks

            1.Analyze the task.
            2.Break the task into small teachable steps.
            3.Analyze the steps the student needs to know in order to
               complete a task.
            4.Determine which steps the student knows well, partially
               knows, or still needs to learn.
            5.Teach the steps that are partially known, followed by
               the steps that are still to be learned.
            6.Provide additional opportunities for practice to maintain
               the steps already learned as well as the ones being
               worked on.


Learning and teaching are active, collaborative, constructive, and continuous processes which enable teachers and students to reflect upon and analyze their own learning and teaching.

Direct experience in learning situations is essential.

Learners should engage in developmentally appropriate activities that are meaningful and authentic.

High standards of scholarship are essential for both teachers and students to remain at the forefront of sound educational practice and change.

Goals for Teachers

Teachers should :

Have a solid background in the knowledge of the learner, content, pedagogy, and self;

Apply this knowledge to make appropriate decisions regarding students, curriculum, and instructional strategies;

Engage in continual reflection and analysis;

Experience life-long professional growth and actively participate in their schools and communities.

Page created on October 21, 1999 ||  Last updated on June 8, 2002
Copyright © 1999-2002 Nada Salem Abisamra

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