Educ 263: Instructional Design
Spring 2009
Instructor: Ryan Watkins

Links: Instructional Design

1- Veronica Allen
This is a great find, I think. It breaks the model down a little bit more. Practically each of the ten sections has been addressed to some extent for those of us who need more clarification. The author adds quite a bit about the ID of a distance learning program. I really got a lot from this site. This comes from The James Madison University Distributed and Distance Learning Services.
To add variety, this URL presents a straightforward slideshow that provides additional insight into the Dick and Carey model as it relates to Instructional Design. Simple…precise…practical. Because we assuredly have varied learning styles, this multimedia presentation of the model should appease those of you who like bullets and may find graphic organization of information somewhat confusing.
The University of Missouri at St. Louis provides a graphic organizer of the components. The language is a bit different, but it is the same basic idea. Some of the language in Education is interchangeable and this provides some additional insight as to whether or not one already possesses a strong foundational knowledge that has been oprating on the job without foundational knowledge of this model, which is also known as a framework for instruction.
This site gives very specific information about “who” Dick and Carey are and also provides their credentials and lists their publications. This is an Open Content Wiki. Where they have taught, worked, and what they are best known for is another line of information that has been offered.
This site takes us to yet another version of information about the ID model. It ranks this model along with the very popular ADDIE model. The Dick and Carey model was criticized for being too rigid. Near the bottom of the page you will find a link that takes you through a brief history of ISD from the 40s until around 2002. The Dick and Carey model comes into real play in 1978 and is in new form since 1996.

2- Carol Lynn Palfrey
I found this website interesting in that it provides a glossary of ID terms, along with corresponding acronyms.  It contrasts the framework of different models, Dick and Carey included.  It also lists future ID conferences.
It has an article by George Siemens, Instructional Design in Elearning (2002). The author provides what seems a good intro to ID, explanation of various models, and discussion of the benefits of using ID.  There is mention of the tension between ID theory and practice, as well as a link to an article on theory "What is Instructional Design Theory?" by Peter deLisle (1997).  This author explains ID theory as the link between learning theories and the practice of building instructional systems.  DeLisle discusses what he views as the problems with traditional processes of ID (too specific, too general, too linear...) and reviews alternative approaches to ID.  is a tutorial developed by Dr. Patricia Rogers, based on her book Designing Instruction for Technology-Enhanced Learning.   She presents her work as a modified version of Dick & Carey's model.  The tutorial outlines five phrases of ID and their applications to converting a traditional class to an online class.  It includes an activity, resources, and a short quiz.

Along the same lines, is an ID handbook developed at Portland State University for faculty transitioning from a traditional course to an online course.  The handbook very explicitly outlines the process that a professor will use when working with an instructional designer to accomplish that goal.  One thing I found very interesting is the breakdown of time each step of the process is expected to take, whether in terms of weeks or hours.  The detail and specificity included in the handbook make it a little easier for me to imagine what is involved in the entire ID process.

3- Patricia Parada
This website provided right at the very top 8 links to articles that are on various aspects of ID.  It also goes into a description with history, different models, and theorists.  It provides alot of good information to gain insight into ID.
This website is the Distance Education Clearinghouse, and it appears to be an extension of the University of Wisconsin.  It was very comprehensive and had tons of links that can provide information on frameworks to use, different audiences (higher ed vs. k-12), learner objectives, evaluation, etc.
This website is an ISD Handbook and holds an expansive amount of links and tabs that give you comprehensive information about definitions, the steps in the ISD process, objectives, even templates.  It can serve as informative and as a point of comparison to pull in different ideas on the ISD process.
This website is part of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, but I liked it because it was succinct and the links (teaching resources and web links) were useful and directly correlated with ISD.  It may be too general, but it provides a good overview or starting off point in learning about the ISD process.

4- Susanne Hoepfl-Wellenhofer
This website from the University of Colorado in Denver is about Instructional Design Models. It has a short description of models and provides a variety of links to read up on some basics. I clicked on some of the links and found them very informative.  I especially liked the Comparative Summary by Judith Boettcher (
I found this website interesting since we use blackboard at GW and the school system in our county uses it as well. It  provides you with some instructional design tips to develop an engaging and instructionally sound Blackboard Course Site.  I found the tips very useful.
This website is a  project by a student from Emporia State University and talks about the application of the Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model and describes a problem with the Macromedia® Flash tutorials used in one of the courses she took.  The author describes at the beginning the reasons why the Dick and Carey Systems Approach Model was chosen as the instructional design model. - This website is an article about “How to Write Great Learning Objectives”. It describes Mager’s Theory of Behavioral Objectives.  It continues to describe the three components behavioral objectives should have: Behavior, condition and standard and gives an example.

5- Janet Evans
I found this site several months ago when the contractor I’m working with was swooning over the work of Gagne. Not wanting to appear uninformed, I read up on the man and his model (Nine Steps of Instructional Design) and found that what I’ve been doing all along is very much aligned with his theory. This site also has great abstracts of several other ID models: John Keller’s ARC Model of Motivational Design, Merrill’s Component Display Theory (I’d have to read that more closely, it was unfamiliar to me in terms of language), Reogeluthis (??) Theory of Elaboration which I liked very much – this whole concept of sequencing and chunking, which I already do. a comprehensive list of what surely must be every model out there: the site has links to dozens of other resources.
I liked this site because the content is displayed in a crisp, clean table format instead of screen after screen of text. Again, it’s a collection of links to different ID models, but is a useful tool as a jumping off point. From our friends over at GMU.

The fourth site I spent some time exploring as . It's all all-purpose site in that has linkes to ID Jobs (not many, I looked), ID degrees, conferences, technology and links to other sites devoted to ID.
The ID sites included some familiar links such as ASTD and ISPI, as well as the eLearning Guild, the Encyclopedia of Educational Technology, the eLearning Guru, the eLearning Society, AECT (Academic and Educational Technology) and GETS (Global Educational Technlogy Systems)

6- Jessica McCullough - A hypertext history of Instructional Design
This site discusses the history of ID through the decades.  Each decade includes the following sections: influences on this period, key people, and additional readings.  For someone who is not familiar with ID, I’ve found reading some of the history helpful in gaining a broad understanding of it. - Instructional Design knowledge base
Written by Dr. Nada Dabbagh, a professor at the George Mason University’s Instructional Technology Program, this site breaks down ID into seven components: front end analysis, outcomes and objectives, task and analysis, models and theories, strategies and tactics, media, and evaluation.  Each component is explained with a brief statement and various techniques, theories and methods are discussed.  I think I will consult this site over the course of this semester since it is easily navigable and the writing style is simple and easy to understand. - Instructional Design
This website is written by Richard Culatta, an “Educational Innovator.”  He has published numerous articles on the subject of ID.  This website contains resources helpful in understanding ID such as different models, notable Instructional Designers, and a glossary.  The site also covers related topics such as Human Computer Interaction, Usability testing, and useful conferences.  Culatta also offers recommended readings. - Educause Connect: Instructional Design
Although this is more like a portal, it provides links to very useful information.  The site is divided into four sections.  The first, Primary Publications, links the reader to Educause publications that are related to ID.  This section also includes an RSS feed so you can be updated when new related articles are published.  The next section, Community Resources, offers a wiki (not yet started – anyone interested?), blogs, and presentations that are hosted on Educase’s site.  The last section, Elsewhere on the Net, I also find useful.  Here the reader is linked to news, blogs, jobs, and books that are outside of Educause’s domain.   Overall, this is a great resource for recent ID resources and research.

7- Heather Stearns
This is a tutorial hosted by the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities that walks through using the instructional design process to create e-Learning courses. It is presented for faculty accustomed to live learning to help them understand how to utilize technology.
I'm going to be coming back to this site quite a bit! It's a blog written by an instructional designer with a wide variety of thoughts, theories, and links to other sites, papers and information relating to instructional design for e-Learning.
This is a paper that asks whether an instructional designer without particular content knowledge can design effective e-Learning. I was surprised that there is so little research available on this topic. Speaking as someone who is not yet trained in pedagogy yet is working with subject matter experts to create online programs, I'm finding it incredibly difficult to understand how to structure the programs without first being able to understand the content.
This is a more general article. It explains what instructional design is and how e-Learning can benefit from it. There are several helpful links from this article, and while I definitely understand focusing on a specific model for this course, I found it very interesting to see the brief descriptions of some of the other models out there.

8- Brian Adair
This is a great video I found in YouTube on how to get a date using the ADDIE model. The author did a spectacular job of displaying all the principals of the ADDIE model in a fun and entertaining way.
This is a wonderful resource on Instructional Design. The web page is designed very well and efficiently. The home page directs the user to many aspects of instructional design, from the varying models, to the designers themselves, to instructional assessment. When you take a look at the instructional design models, one thing I found interesting was a link that discussed the weaknesses of the ADDIE model. Many sources I have read listed the ADDIE model as the most widely accepted in the Instructional Design field, and I found it enlightening to learn more about the disadvantages of the model.
In my quest to create an educational buffet, I found this great blog which discusses not only specific Instructional Design models, but has great information on Bloom's Taxonomy, how children learn,  and the thing I think I like best is the Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Not to mention, I really like the name of the blog, The Learned Man!
Finally, a discussion on Instructional Design from EduTech Wiki. Now, what sets this site apart from others I have investigated is the "Bare Bones" section. Here you will find very teacher friendly information regarding Instructional Design using laymans terms. Instructional Design can be a complex topic and it can be very intimidating at first.

9- Brian Holmsten - Kirkpatrick's Learning and Training Evaluation Theory
My corporate position subscribes to this theory of following up on ID activities to ensure that the goals are being met and implemented by the learners. Notice how I say we "subscribe" to this theory, rather than "actively follow" this theory. In the corporate world, implementation is often the end of the line - - but in those times when we can evaluate, this is tremendously useful. - Cathy Moore's Making Change Blog
Cathy is a corporate eLearning specialist, which fit in nicely with what my corporate responsibilities are. While her site focuses primarily on eLearning, it also has plenty to offer on the design and development of training tools and activities, and can be applied in many other traching and training avenues. - Principles of Adult Learning Theory
I teach adults, at both my corporate job and at a local community college. Knowing how to identify the needs, motivations, and expectations of adults is key in the needs assessment phase of ID. I cannot fathom trying to develop activites and classes without knowing the needs of the audeince. - Instructional Design Models
A compendium of all research and classification of ID theories, styles, etc. The Table of Contents for any study of ID.

10- Tara Courchaine
This site was probably the most comprehensive site that I found on ISD and it was also the first site that I came across in my searches. The site is broken up into three sections, modern prescriptive models, postmodern phenomenological models and comparative summaries. This site contains information both about the models themselves and the theories behind them. For someone who is new to ISD and interested in learning more about it- it's a great place to start.
This site approaches instuctional design a little differently that the first site that I mentioned. They present 5 theories of developing and designing instruciton and then in the last section they tie the theories together to develop an instructional design model. I like this approach because you can see how the pieces fit together to create a strong ISD model.
Bobbi Kerlin is a instructional technology coordinator at Queen's university. Her site includes many links to both work samples and ISD models for teaching online. I was immediately drawn to her site because she includes using Bloom’s taxonomy to design instruction. I believe that Bloom's taxonomy is great way to think both about teaching and scaffolding instruction to help students become successful learners.
This is a site that would also be a great place to start for someone new to ISD. It has links to 5 of the main models of ISD:ADDIE, Rapid Prototyping, Iterative Design, Discovery Learning, Cognitive Apprenticeship, and also has links to additional information and infromation about the people who developed the models. The site is designed to give basic information about ISD, the models and explain how they are related to teaching and learning.

11- Irma Alvarezalexander
Understanding the perspective of different models is important to truly understanding instructional design holistically.  We live in a world that is dynamic and demands critical thinkers to analyze a situation and assess the problem and identify the best solution, which is not always training.  This site provides a list of basic questions and answers on instructional design as well as a detailed list of different ID models:  modern prescriptive, postmodern phenomenological and comparative summary.
We must understand the point of origin in order to understand how we got where we are – this apply to everything be it humans, machines, models, etc.  ID, in particular is a collection of various models that have resulted from different view points and efforts to understand and explain an effective manner to conduct ID.  This site provides a brief but enlightening introduction to ID.
When learning something I always want to read about the good, the bad, and the ugly of that thing.  This site provides a good review of an article written by Gordon and Zemke in 2000 titled “The Attack on ISD.”  The article makes four charges against the traditional ISD model.  We must be willing to read the cons of each model so that we can be mindful of how we employ them.
I liked this website because it is very simple.  It covers instructional goals and provides useful tips on how to write them for different levels of learning.  It also provides a quiz at the end to test your understanding.
“To students of instructional design the introduction and subsequent "sorting out" of the various learning theories and associated instructional design strategies can be somewhat confusing.”  Brenda Mergel wanted to “sort out” the confusion.  In this site she tries to differentiate between learning theories and explain why theories overlap.  She investigates available literature on learning theories and their implications for instructional design.

12- David Ferris

I took a slightly different tack on this assignment but hopefully it will be useful.

My first citation is for Google Scholar. I just learned about this in the last week. If you go to and click on "advanced search" you'll find a link for this. Basically what this does is a search by topic ordered by the number of citations found online for the publication. Gagne's "Principles of Instuctional Design" comes up first when you do a keyword search on "Instructional Design."

Second, the way I found out about the above is a listserv that I joined as part of an ETL class about two years ago. I've occasionally entered into the discussion and there's moderated discussion of scholarly papers that can be very interesting and/or esoteric but I suppose I'm learning how to conduct "scholarly online discussion" about Instructional Design through monitoring this site. Also there are searchable archives for topics that seem to come up commonly such as "podcasting." I nearly got flamed when I jumped in on that thread.

Third, and again courtesy of the past week on the ITFORUM is the BECT is the British Educational and Communications Technology Agency. This and the following link put our Bush-eviscerated Department of Health Education and Welfare on notice for being woefully lacking. There are links for newletter and alert subscriptions and developer resources. The strategic plan page is especially interesting:

Finally, another site that shows a coordinated effort across the pond that puts us to shame is the Tencompetance Organization. What this site and initiative are devoted to is the notion of lifelong learning to foster a more resilient society. A noble goal with 9 member countries from the EU. The organization's charter is to support academic research and recent research and scholarly papers related to the topic of lifelong learning are hot-linked.

14- Shane Cusumano
This paper deals with the ID model by discussing different educational philosophy. The Systems Approach to Instructional Design is also discussed.
This site defines ID and goes over the different theories in Instructional Design. It does a good job of discussing the history of the ID. The language used is a little different than in Dick and Carey.
This site details the familiar ADDIE model for ID.
Thompson gives a defense of ID. The site details the benefits of using ID in many different fields.

15- Sandra Holloway - This is a case study on developing a hybrid college class. It was pretty interesting to read and I felt it reflected a lot of what some online students and instructors must feel. He listed what I thought were very valid and important considerations when developing online courses. This article comes from the Journal of Online Learning and Teaching (JOLT) and therefore is a good resource for case studies and research papers. - This site provides information and links to help with the instructional design process. The three links across the top of the page doesn't work but I have but the correct link addresses here: ISD Links, PowerPoint Slideshow, EPSS. The Worksheets link does work. It seems that they changed sites from Fullerton to Cogsim but all the links didn't get changed. Other than that inconvenience, I found the information useful as another way of looking at ISD. - This link is a paper with an overview of the different learning theories and four ISD models. The author begins with Dick and Carey's model and ends with his own relating each to the learning theories. - I thought this was a college website with information to their ID courses but it's not. It is a resource website. It is the Institute for Teaching and Learning at the University of Connecticut. I found the self-directed guide for developing courses for significant learning interesting to me  because it is simple. Since I am new to this process, simple works for me. Since I am in the process of trying to develop a training program for my work center, the sample and templates will be very beneficial to me as a way to get started.

16- John Shelton

When I was poking around for links I came across some videos on YouTube of Sivasailam Thiagarajan, better known as "Thiagi". I recognized the name from one of this week's readings where he made the point that many ISD packages are designed for the lowest common denominator and don't allow the learner to skip ahead if they get the concept earlier than the designer expected.  This struck me because in the last year I've had to do a number of on-line training modules and after about 10 minutes of following the rules I would inevitably find myself clicking through pages of information and fast forwarding through videos to take a quiz I could largely pass based on common sense alone.  After watching a few of the videos and checking out his website I've now decided Thiagi is my favorite Instructional Designer.  Sorry Diane Gayeski.

First up is this video introduction to Thiagi. ( - sorry, my hyperlink button isn't working for some reason)  There's also a full presentation by Thiagi available on YouTube ( but it's nearly two hours long and I only had time to skim through it.

On Thiagi's website there are a number of articles.  This one (, about designing instruction that is faster, cheaper and better, is interesting because it provides a number of case studies in making a point that seems to be one of Thiagi's founding principles: that the focus should be on activities rather than content.

I also quite liked this article ( dealing with 14 "Laws of Learning" when dealing with adult learners.  Most of my teaching experience has been with adults and I agree whole-heartedly with these observations.

I'll leave Thiagi behind with my last site (  This is a very cool clickable "Instructional System Design Concept Map".  The left-hand portion of the map deals with the ADDIE system and the right side deals with the steps learners must go through to be able to accomplish the tasks set out for them.

17- Maria Wagner

My first site is the Instructional Design Handbook for online course development for the faculty of Portland State University Faculty. It seems to be a simplistic approach to instructional design, but I found the process interesting because it is very practical and I always wondered how professors put together a class. I am interested in teaching online myself, so I found this site informative. I especially found interesting the table titled: Translation of Classroom-based Interactions to the Web.

The second site, Instructional Design Central, is a general site for instructional design and provides professionals, researchers, and students with instructional design (or instructional technology) resources and community collaboration. The following are interesting links that I found while checking out this site:

The third site helps to understand and apply incorporate Universal Instructional Design in courses. We need to note that the term "universal" does not imply that one size fits all – instead it’s the opposite. One needs to think of universal access to courses, not a universal curriculum. It provides a list of the principals of universal instructional design as well as additional resource links.

Finally, is where Blackboard gives instructional design tips for creating courses online using Blackboard. It uses the Oliver, Herrington, and Omari web-based model for university instruction.

18- Corinne Thomas - A Hypertext History of Instructional Design
This site may have been mentioned before, but I found it very useful since it outlines the different periods of Instructional Design in hyperlink format. Within each of those periods, the major components are listed as bullet points along with online texts or websites for futher research. I would highly recommend this site. - A Brief History of Instructional Design by Douglas Leigh
We read this article as part of an assignment for EDUC234. It provides an great narative history of instructional design and the reasonings behind certain systems and educational patterns. - Why School's Can't Improve: The Upper Limit Hypothesis by Robert K. Branson
This article (the article can be found on the site) was referenced in the article above. It talks about schools operating at "peak efficiency" and having to potentially be "redesigned from the top down using technological interventions." I thought that was an interesting idea since ID usually starts from the ground up...or at least it seems that way. It was a different perspective to consider. (The article itself is a bit dated, but it was still interesting) - Instructional Design Handbook - Portland State University
I thought this was a very interesting (and useful) resource. From the looks of things, PSU has really put a lot of effort and thought into their ID process, and they have created this handbook to help their online faculty do the same. It includes resources for the ID process, how to create syllabi, assessment, Bloom's Taxonomy, etc. I think it is a great gesture towards their faculty that they care about quality classes and are willing to help them craft such.

19- Jennifer Davis

A while back when I first entered into the field of Instructional Design, I heavily relied upon this website for basic terminology ( It is great for beginner, such as myself to introduce and explain the history and terminology behind this field.

Through the lecture I became intrigued by the different models of instructional design and wanted to go find out what existed out there.  I was blown away at the history behind Instructional Design models.  This website ( is great to be introduced to the leading minds behind the models.

I have been intrigued through much of my educational career by people who are brilliant in certain subjects, but clueless on how to present it in a matter that works.  This website made by UAB seems to give some guidance to those teaching without design background necessary to get the fullest potential (

This last website was also unique. It caught by eye, because of the top link that talks of using games as teaching stategies and whether they really work.  Check it out, (  I will most surely rely on this website during the beginning of my ID career, as it looks to be beneficial to provide training stops.

20- Katrina White

The first resource I came across was this website entitled Introduction to Instructional Technology. to Instructional Technology T.htm. This website is perfect for someone with limited knowledge in instructional design/technology like myself. It gives a brief synopsis of terms, history, roles and models. I will definitely refer to this site as a quick reference guide.

The next site is from Florida Gulf Coast University. This website explores instructional design through principles, practices and examples. The purpose of this website is to provide a resource to faculty who are designing online instructional materials. I like how your able to follow the instructional design process from Instructional/Audience Analysis to Course Management.

My third site is a blog by Will Thalheimer. Mr. Thalheimer has over twenty years experience in instructional design and training. This blog provides information to research and articles to the present and future of instructional design.

The final website is a great source for everything e-learning. The site also allows you to search for articles, blogs and links related to instructional design. In addition, it provides a source list, and divides additional educational material by category for quick and easy searches.

21- Shaunagh Bedford
This site starts out by quoting David Merrill, PHD, “Information is not instruction”. I found this a troubling statement because it brought up all those bad memories of sitting in classes listening to my professor drone on about what could have been interesting topics. I just bought the notes. Anyhow, this site is filled with fantastic articles from blended learning to ID checklists. A great resource for all things ID related even a few papers on how to design courses quick and simple.
I found this site had some good resources as far as ID templates and ideas on how to develop your ideas and direction.
The University of Texas has put together a series of links that offers information from what are the time and costs associated with ID of a web course to videos on Instructional Technology. Although not everything was ID based I know that I will be using the other information in the future so it’s bookmarked.
An interesting site dedicating to helping you use instructions design to develop online courses. It really gave an easy to use process for how to follow the process of ID and had some great examples of courses that had been developed.

22- Nada Salem
"What is Instructional Design?"
This site covers Instructional Design as a Process, as a Discipline, as a Science, and as Reality. In addition, it provides "Other Definitions of "Instructional" Words."
Instructional Design (ID)
This site presents five theories for developing instruction that provide a framework to build upon, including Robert Gagne's Nine Steps of Instruction and John Keller's ARCS Model of Motivational Design. It also covers the Constructivist Theory, Strategies for Using Constructivism in Training (metacognition which I highly recommend), An Instruction Design Model (interesting), in addition to different templates.
Instructional System Design Concept Map (interactive). You can click on the different parts and you get tons of information about each.
Instructional Design- Illinois Online Network- Online Education Resources (ppt pres)
This site offers Power Point Presentations and other html pages about:
- Principles of Instructional Design
- Designing an effective course
- Models and Theories
- Helping others make their courses great
- Course Objectives
- Learning Styles
Instructional Design Services- South Dakota State University
This is a comprehensive site that covers, among others, Writing Course Objectives, Instructional Design Models, Teaching Tips, How to Develop an Online Course, Instructional Design & Learning Theory, Using Instructional Design Principles To Amplify Learning On The World Wide Web, Learner Characteristics and Instructional Design, and Factors that Create Success for e-Learners. Worth visiting... "visit the site" when asked.