By Nada Salem Abisamra

Group for Discussions on Facebook: Nada's ESL Island.(Join us there! Post your questions)

Nada's Master's THESIS:
"The Role of Motivation, Gender, and Language Learning Strategies
in EFL Proficiency"  (Html / References)

      Presentation: Procedures
        1. Survey
        2. KWL chart
        3. Preliminary Questionnaire
        4. Presentation Outline
        5. Presentation
        6. Recapitulation
        7. KWL chart revisited
        8. Presentation Evaluation

      Presentation: Content

        Introduction: Krashen's Affective Filter hypothesis
        & Affect in Language Learning.
        1. Why do people learn a second/foreign language?
        2. Definitions of L2
        3. Good L2 Learners
        4. Definitions of Motivation
        5. Sources of Motivation
        6. Theories of Motivation
        7. Models of Motivation
        8. Factors that Affect Motivation
        9. Instruments for Motivation Assessment
        10. Implications & Strategies for:
        Conclusion & Recapitulation
        Related Links

"The Creator gathered all of creation and said,
'I want to hide something from the humans until they are Ready for it.
It is the Realization that They Create their Own Reality.'
The eagle said, 'Give it to me, I will take it to the moon.'
The Creator said, 'No. One day they will go there and find it.'
The salmon said, 'I will hide it on the bottom of the ocean.'
'No. They will go there too.'
The buffalo said, 'I will bury it on the Great Plains.'
Then Grand-mother Mole, who lives in the breast of Mother Earth,
and who has no physical eyes but sees with spiritual eyes,
said, 'Put it Inside them.'
And the creator said, 'It is done.' "
Sioux Legend

What do we infer from this "Legend?"

    1. Can we motivate our students if they are not "Ready" for motivation?
    2. It is not only the teacher's / parents' job to motivate students, they need to assume responsibility for their own learning. => intrinsic motivation.
    3. We can search everywhere for the most valuable thing for us, but if we only look with physical eyes, we won't find it.
    4. If we help our students to look deep inside of them, they will find what they need: intrinsic motivation.
    5. We have been everywhere but have ignored our inner selves.
    6. We = people with both our Cognitive & Affective domains.
    7. The Cognitive domain has been dealt with extensively; the Affective one, on the other hand, has been ignored for a long time; it needs to be considered: it is the second component in our personality and is extremely important.

        As Rogers said while talking about mainstream educational institutions,
        "They have focused so intently on the cognitive and have limited themselves so completely to 'educating from the neck up' , that this narrowness is resulting in serious social consequences." (1975:40-41)
    9. We are the ones that create our own reality; what we are, what we want to be. We need to Realize that, to understand it, to acknowledge it. => set goals!

Motivation is like food for the brain. --Peter Davies

Life takes on meaning when you become motivated, set goals and
charge after them in an unstoppable manner. -- Les Brown --

Everybody needs motivation. Everybody needs to have a reason for action.
It is a sad fact that most people in this world underachieve because
they don't believe they are capable of fulfilling their dreams.
We, teachers, need to be committed to offering students the opportunity
to believe in themselves and achieve great things.

Krashen's Affective Filter hypothesis
& Affect in Language Learning

Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition
consists of five main hypotheses:

    1- Natural order hypothesis:
    'We acquire the rules of language in a predictable order'
    2- Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis: 'Adults have two distinctive ways of developing competences in second languages .. acquisition, that is by using language for real communication (natural environment) ... learning .. "knowing about" language' 
    3- Monitor Hypothesis: 'Conscious learning ... can only be used as a Monitor or an editor'
    (those who use the monitor a lot are slow learners => too conscious of what they say)
    4- Input Hypothesis:  'Humans acquire language in only one way - by understanding messages or by receiving "comprehensible input"'
    (comprehensible input = data we hear around us; if we are relaxed, it goes directly to our heads)
    5- Affective Filter Hypothesis:  'A mental block, caused by affective factors ... that prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device' 
Krashen Model
In this presentation, we are only interested in the fifth hypothesis -- The Affective Filter Hypothesis-- which stipulates that a number of 'affective variables' play a facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem, and debilitating anxiety can combine to 'raise' the affective filter and form a 'mental block' that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is 'up' it impedes language acquisition. (Krashen, 1985)

What we conclude then is that Affect plays a very important role in second language acquisition. It needs to be taken into consideration by L2 teachers so they make sure that the students' affective filter is low at all times in order for learning to take place.
Since this presentation is only related to Motivation, it will not cover the two other variables: self-confidence and anxiety.

Before we start by defining motivation, mentioning its sources and different theories/models and their implications, we believe it is worth asking one question that seems to guide all theorists' and researchers' work: "Why do people learn a second or foreign language? In other words, what is their Goal?

1- Why Do People Learn a
Second/Foreign Language?

This seems to be the key question in all kinds of research!
And of course, the reasons vary from a person to another.

Here are a few suggestions:
After all, we, as teachers, need to find the student's motives so that we can accommodate them.

Affective factors and foreign language learning

2- Definitions of L2


3- Good L2 Learners

Research has shown that the use of specific learning strategies & techniques while studying a second or foreign language leads to success. "The conscious, tailored use of such strategies is related to language achievement and proficiency. (Oxford, 1994)

Some of those strategies:

Rubin (1975) suggested that good L2 learners

  • are willing and accurate guessers;
  • have a strong drive to communicate;
  • are often uninhibited, and if they are, they combat inhibition by using positive self-talk, by extensive use of practicing in private, and by putting themselves in situations where they have to participate communicatively.
  • are willing to make mistakes;
  • focus on form by looking for patterns and analyzing;
  • take advantage of all practice opportunities;
  • monitor their speech as well as that of others;
  • and pay attention to meaning.
  • One of the factors that influence the choice of strategies used among students learning a second/foreign language is Motivation. More motivated students tend to use more strategies than less motivated students, hence, they tend to be more successful. (Oxford, 1990a)

    4- Definitions of Motivation

    However simple and easy the word "motivation" might appear, it is in fact very difficult to define. It seems to have been impossible for theorists to reach consensus on a single definition.

    Here are a few that I have found in the literature:

    According to the Webster's, to motivate means to provide with a motive, a need or desire that causes a person to act.

    According to Gardner (1985), motivation is concerned with the question, "Why does an organism behave as it does?
    Motivation involves 4 aspects:

    1. A Goal
    2. An Effort
    3. A Desire to attain the goal
    4. Favorable Attitude toward the activity in question.
    Motivation is also defined as the impetus to create and sustain intentions and goal-seeking acts (Ames & Ames, 1989). It is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. (Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa, 1998)

    Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal.
    Many researchers consider motivation as one of the main elements that determine success in developing a second or foreign language; it determines the extent of active, personal involvement in L2 learning. (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)

    Sometimes a distinction is made between positive and negative motivation.
    Positive motivation is a response which includes enjoyment and optimism about the tasks that you are involved in.
    Negative motivation involves undertaking tasks for fear that there should be undesirable outcomes, eg. failing a subject, if tasks are not completed.
    What can we infer from all those definitions? What are the keywords that "Motivation" triggers in our minds?


  • *Goal
  • *Effort
  • *Desire
  • *Energy
  • *Active involvement
  • *Persistence
  • Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.
    --Napolean Hill --

    5- Sources of Motivation

    "Without knowing where the roots of motivation lie, how can teachers water those roots?"
    (Oxford & Shearin, 1994- p.15)

    Educational psychologists point to three major sources of motivation in learning (Fisher, 1990):
      1. The learner’s natural interest:  intrinsic satisfaction
      2. The teacher/institution/employment: extrinsic reward
      3. Success in the task: combining satisfaction and reward

    "While teachers and school systems have drawn on both of the first two sources of motivation,
      the third source is perhaps under-exploited in language teaching.  This is the simple fact of
      success, and the effect that this has on our view of what we do.  As human beings, we generally
      like what we do well, and are therefore more likely to do it again, and put in more effort . . .
    In the classroom, this can mean that students who develop an image of
     themselves as ‘no good at English’ will simply avoid situations which tell them what they already
     know – that they aren’t any good at English.   Feelings of failure, particularly early on in a
     student’s school career, can therefore lead to a downward spiral of a self- perception of low
     ability – low motivation – low effort – low achievement – low motivation – low achievement, and
     so on."
    Littlejohn, Andrew- November 2001
     ENGLISH TEACHING professional, Issue 19, March 2001
    In general, explanations regarding the source(s) of motivation can be categorized as either extrinsic (outside the person) or intrinsic (internal to the person). Intrinsic sources and corresponding theories can be further subcategorized as either body/physical, mind/mental (i.e., cognitive, affective, conative) or transpersonal/spiritual.

    Note: Conation = inclination to act purposefully; impulse. (Webster's)
    "It is an intrinsic 'unrest' of the organism, almost the opposite of homeostasis.
    A conscious tendency to act... a conscious striving." (English & English, 1958)

    extintmt.gif (28216 bytes)

    Note: Vicarious learning = the acquisition of knowledge or ability
      through indirect experience and observation, rather than direct experience or practice.
    (Harcourt Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology)

    The following chart provides a brief overview of the different sources of motivation that have been studied. While INITIATION of action can be traced to each of these domains, it appears likely that PERSISTENCE  may be more related to emotions and/or the affective area (optimism vs. pessimism; self- esteem; etc.) or to conation and goal-orientation.

    Sources of Motivational Needs
    • elicited by stimulus associated/ connected to innately connected stimulus
    • obtain desired, pleasant consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesired, unpleasant consequences
    • imitate positive models
    • increase/decrease stimulation 
    • activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc.)
    • decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc.
    • maintain homeostasis, balance
    • increase/decrease affective dissonance (inconsistency)
    • increase feeling good 
    • decrease feeling bad
    • increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem
    • maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm
    • maintain attention to something interesting or threatening
    • develop meaning or understanding
    • increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium; uncertainty
    • solve a problem or make a decision
    • figure something out
    • eliminate threat or risk
    • meet individually developed/selected goal
    • obtain personal dream
    • take control of one's life
    • eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining dream
    • reduce others' control of one's life
    • understand purpose of one's life
    • connect self to ultimate unknowns

    6- Theories of Motivation

    A- Behavioral Theories
    B- Cognitive Theories
    Weiner (1990) points out that behavioral theories tend to focus on extrinsic motivation (i.e., rewards) while cognitive theories deal with intrinsic motivation (i.e., goals).

    Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of a person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life. Thus, motivation is internal.

    C- Cognitive Developmental Theories


    D- Achievement Motivation Theories

    E- Psychoanalytic Theories

    Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
    Stage Age Expected Resolution
    Infancy Child develops a belief that the environment can be counted on to meet his or her basic physiological and social needs 
    Shame and Doubt
    Toddlerhood Child learns what he/she can control and develops a sense of free will and corresponding sense of regret and sorrow for inappropriate use of self-control.
    Early Childhood Child learns to begin action, to explore, to imagine as well as feeling remorse for actions 
    Middle Childhood/
    Child learns to do things well or correctly in comparison to a standard or to others 
    Role Confusion
    Adolescence Develops a sense of self in relationship to others and to own internal thoughts and desires (Later work has shown two substages: a social identity focusing on which group a person will identify with and a personal identity focusing on abilities, goals, possibilities, etc.)
    Young Adult Develops ability to give and receive love; begins to make long-term commitment to relationships 
    Middle Adulthood Develops interest in guiding the development of the next generation
    Ego Integrity 
    Older Adulthood Develops a sense of acceptance of life as it was lived and the importance of the people and relationships that individual developed over the lifespan 

    Deci identifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as the three criteria necessary for the self-determination theory of motivation.



    Fill the Heart, not just the Money Bag.

    Edward L. Deci

    G- Social Cognition

     Theory Name
    A- Behavioral Theories
    => extrinsic motivation

    Behaviorists explain motivation in terms of external stimuli and reinforcement. The physical environment and actions of the teacher are of  prime importance.

    1- Classical conditioning
    2- Operant conditioning
    3- Observational/social learning
    1- Pavlov
    2- Skinner
    3- Bandura
    1- Stimulus, response, association (involuntary)
    2- Stimulus, response, reward = reinforcement
    3- Modeling (imitation) + Vicarious learning
    B- Cognitive Theories
    => intrinsic motivation

    Cognitivists explain motivation in terms of person's active search for meaning and satisfaction in life. Thus motivation is internal.

    1- Expectancy-value
    2- Attribution theory
    3- Cognitive dissonance
    1- Vroom / 1964
    2- Heider, 1958 / Weiner, 1974
    3- Festinger / 1957
    1- Expectancy of success + Instrumentality (see the connection between activity & reward) + Value the results.
    2- Attribute success/failure to factors that are: internal/external/under control/out of control
    3- Act to resolve conflict or discrepancies.
    C- Cognitive Developmental Theories 1- Stages of cognitive development.
    2- Zone of proximal development
    1- Piaget / 1972, 1990
    2- Vygotsky / 1978
    D- Achievement Motivation Theories 1- Need for achievement
    2- Fear of failure
    3- Fear of success
    4- Goal theory:
  • Mastery goals
  • Performance goals
  • Social goals
  • 1- 2- 3- Atkinson & Raynor / 1974
    4- Locke & Latham / 1994
    E- Psychoanalytic 1- Life & Death
    2- Social/interpersonal relationships
    3- Power
    4- Search for soul
    1- Freud / 1990
    2- Erikson, 1993 / Sullivan, 1968
    3- Adler / 1989
    4- Jung / 1953, 1997
    F- Humanistic Theories

    Humanists stress the need for personal growth. They place a great deal of emphasis on the total person, along with the related news of personal freedom, choice and self-determination. 

    1- Hierarchy of Needs 
    2- Hierarchy of Motivational Needs 
    3- Self-determination
    1- Maslow / 1954
    2- Alderfer, 1972
    3- Deci & Ryan, 1985
    1- Self-actualization, esteem, belongingness, safety, physiological.
    We are not motivated by any higher-level needs until our lower-level ones
    have been satisfied.
    2- Growth, relatedness, existence needs.
    Alderfer showed how people regress if their higher order needs are not met.
    3- Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic motivation- A person must be able to initiate and regulate, through personal choice, the effort expended to complete a task in order for the task to be intrinsically rewarding. 
    G- Social Cognition 1- Self-efficacy
    2- Self-regulation
    1- 2- Bandura / 1986, 1997 1- Judging one's own  ability
    2- Establishing goals and developing a plan to attain those goals.

    7- Models of Motivation

      A- Gardner & Lambert (1959, 1972): Socio-Educational Model
        After conducting a study that lasted more than ten years, they concluded that the learner's attitude toward the target language and the culture of the target-language-speaking community play a crucial role in language learning motivation. They introduced the notions of instrumental and integrative motivation.

        In the context of language learning, instrumental motivation refers to the learner's desire to learn a language for utilitarian purposes (such as school/university requirement, employment or travel), whereas integrative motivation refers to the desire to learn a language to integrate successfully into the target language community.

          McDonough (1981)noted that there are two types of integrative motivation: “Assimilative motivation”, strong motivation to “belong” to the target group (give up one's own culture to assimilate into the target culture), and “Affiliative motivation”, weak motivation and a desire for wider social contact with target language speakers.

          Researchers challenged the social psychological approach claiming that it does not include the cognitive aspects of learning motivation (Oxford & Shearin, 1994; Dornyei, 1994), it is not practical and does not benefit L2 learning since it is too broad to help L2 educators generate practical guidelines (Dornyei, 1990).

      B- Vroom (1964): Expectancy Value Theories: Learners' motivation to acquire a second language is determined by:
          • Effort
          • Valence (perception of degree of attractiveness of goals/ its value)
          • Expectancy (perception of the probability of attaining the goals)
          • Ability (appraisal of their ability to achieve the goals).
          • Instrumentality (connection of success and reward)

        Questions the learner asks him/herself:

      C- Schumann (1978, 1986): Acculturation Model- Schumann examined the effects of personal variables such as relative status, attitude, integration, amount of time in the culture, size of the learning group, and cohesiveness of the group on adult language learning.

      Schumann suggested three strategies taken by adult learners:

      He suggests that the degree of acculturation determines the level of second language aquisition. When an individual chooses to acculturate and experiences success, the motivation to learn the L2 increases. (Oxford & Shearin, 1994)
      In the EFL­unlike the ESL classroom, the situation is slightly different, in that the need for assimilation or acculturation is practically non-existent, especially at beginning levels and in languages such as French or German.
      D- Gardner (1985):.Gardner explored four other motivational orientations:
          • (a) reason for learning,
          • (b) desire to attain the learning goal,
          • (c) positive attitude toward the learning situation, and
          • (d) effortful behavior.

        Gardner (1985) describes core second language learning motivation as a construct composed of three characteristics:

        According to Gardner, a highly motivated individual will

        "An integratively oriented learner would likely have a stronger desire to learn the language, have more positive attitudes towards the learning situation, and be more likely to expend more effort in learning the language (Gardner, 1985).

        The Gardnerian theory of SLA motivation is based on the definition of motivation as "the extent to which the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in this activity" (Gardner, 1985).

      E- Deci & Ryan (1985): Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory: it is based on the relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and the basic human need for autonomy. It proposes that a person must be able to initiate and regulate, through personal choice, the effort expended to complete a task in order for the task to be intrinsically rewarding.
      F- Dornyei (1990): He postulated a motivational construct consisting of:
          • an Instrumental Motivational Subsystem
          • an Integrative Motivational Subsystem
          • Need for Achievement
          • Attribution about past failures.
        "Instrumental motivation might be more important than integrative motivation for foreign language learners."
      G- Crookes & Schmidt (1991): They identified four areas of SL motivation:
          • the micro level,
          • the classroom level,
          • the syllabus level, and
          • a level involving factors from outside the classroom.

          The micro level involves the cognitive processing of L2 input.
          At the micro level learner motivation is evidenced by the amount of attention given to the input.
          The classroom level includes the techniques and activities employed in the classroom.
          The syllabus level refers to the choice of content presented and can influence motivation by the level of curiosity and interest stimulated in the students.
          Finally, factors from outside the classroom involve informal interaction in the L2 and long term factors.

          Crookes & Schmidt (1991) also suggested that motivation to learn a language has both internal and external features:

    Structure of Motivation

    Internal / Attitudinal factors

    1- Interest in L2 (based on attitudes, experience, background knowledge)
    2- Relevance (perception that personal needs --achievement, affiliation, power-- are being met by learning the L2.
    3- Expectancy of success or failure.
    4- Outcomes (extrinsic or intrinsic rewards felt by the learner.)

    External / Behavioral factors

    1- Decision to choose, pay attention to, and engage in L2 learning.
    2- Persistence
    3- High activity level

    Mentioned in "Tapestry of Language Learning" p. 52
      H- Oxford and Shearin (1994): They analyzed a total of 12 motivational theories or models, including those from socio-psychology, cognitive development, and socio-cultural psychology, and identified six factors that impact motivation in language learning:
          * * attitudes (i.e., sentiments toward the learning community and the target language)

          * * beliefs about self (i.e., expectancies about one's attitudes to succeed, self-efficacy, and anxiety)

          * * goals (perceived clarity and relevance of learning goals as reasons for learning)

          * * involvement (i.e., extent to which the learner actively and consciously participates in the language learning process)

          * * environmental support (i.e., extent of teacher and peer support, and the integration of cultural and outside-of-class support into learning experience)

          * * personal attributes (i.e., aptitude, age, sex, and previous language learning experience).

      I- Dornyei (1994):.His taxonomy of motivation is comprised of three levels:
          • the Language Level,
          • the Learner Level, and
          • the Learning Situation Level.
        1. The Language level is the most general level which focuses on "orientations and motives related to various aspects of the L2". The motives and orientations at this level determine the language studied and the most basic learning goals.
          • integrative motivational subsystem
          • instrumental motivational subsystem
        2. The Learner level involves the influence of individual traits of language learners. Motivation is influenced at the Learner Level by the learner's
          • need for achievement
          • self-confidence (anxiety, perceived L2 competence, attributions, self-efficacy).
          The Learner Level is concerned with internal, affective characteristics of the learner related to expectancy.
        3. Motivation at the Learning Situation Level is influenced by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic motives that are
          • course specific (interest, relevance, expectancy, satisfaction),
          • teacher specific (affiliative motive --please teacher, authority type --controlling vs. autonomy supporting, modelling, task presentation, feedback),
          • group specific (goal-orientedness, reward system, group cohesiveness, classroom goal structure -- cooperative, competitive, individualistic.
      J- Wen (1997): He incorporated expectancy-value theories and identified four motivational factors:
          • motivation of instrumentality
          • intrinsic motivation
          • expected learning strategies and efforts
          • passivity towards requirements.
    K- Dornyei (1998):.He suggests seven main motivational dimensions:
        1. the affective/integrative dimension:

        2. the instrumental/pragmatic dimension;

        3. the macro-context-related dimension (multi-cultural/ intergroup / ethnolinguistic relations);

        4. the self-concept-related dimension (generalised/ trait-like personality factors);

        5. the goal-related dimension;

        6. the educational context-related dimension (learning/ classroom/ school environment);

        7. the significant others-related dimension (parents, family, friends).

    (Click on the picture to go to his web site)

    Models of Motivation

    Model Name
    A- Gardner/Lambert (1959/1972) Socio-Educational Model  Instrumental and Integrative motivation + Assimilative & Affiliative
    B- Vroom (1964) Expectancy Value Theories: Effort 
    C- Schumann (1978/1986) Acculturation Model
    (for adults)
    Assimilation: total adoption 
    Rejection of target culture
    Acculturation: learning to function in the new culture while maintaining one's own identity. 
    D- Gardner (1985) Four other motivational orientations (a) reason for learning, 
    (b) desire to attain the learning goal, 
    (c) positive attitude toward the learning situation, and 
    (d) effortful behavior. 
    E- Deci & Ryan (1985) Self-Determination (autonomy) Theory Intrinsic & Extrinsic motivation
    F- Dornyei (1990) Motivational construct Instrumental Motivational 
    Integrative Motivational 
    Need for Achievement 
    Attribution about past failures. 
    G- Crookes & Schmidt (1991) 1- Four areas of SL motivation
    2- Structure of Motivation
    1- Micro level, 
    Classroom level, 
    Syllabus level, and 
    Outside the classroom level. 
    2- Internal factors (interest, relevance, expectancy, outcomes) & External factors (decision, persistence, activity level)
    H- Oxford & Shearin (1994) Six factors that impact motivation in language learning Attitudes 
    Beliefs about self 
    Environmental support 
    Personal attributes
    I- Dornyei (1994) Taxonomy of motivation Language Level, 
    Learner Level, and 
    Learning Situation Level. 
    J- Wen (1997) Incorporated expectancy-value theories Motivation of instrumentality 
    Intrinsic motivation 
    Expected learning strategies and efforts 
    Passivity towards requirements. 
    K- Dornyei (1998) Seven main motivational dimensions 1. affective/integrative 
    2. instrumental/pragmatic 
    3. macro-context-related 
    4. self-concept-related 
    5. goal-related 
    6. educational context-related 
    7. significant others-related 

    8- Factors that Affect Motivation

    "Motivation to learn is a competence acquired through general experience but stimulated most directly through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others (especially parents and teachers)." (Brophy, 1987)
    "To a very large degree, students expect to learn if their teachers expect them to learn."
    (Stipek, 1988)
    Several factors affect students' motivation to learn a second language.

    Internal Factors
    Age cf. Piaget, Maslow, Alderfer, Erikson, Vygotsky, ...
    Gender Girls are known to acquire languages faster than boys. Hence, their motivation would be higher.
    Religion .
    Goals Why the learner is studying the language.
    Need How much the learner needs to study this language.
    Interest (and curiosity) How interested the learner is in learning this language.
    Attitude How the learner views this language and its speakers.
    Expectancy How much the learner expects to succeed.
    Self-efficacy / Competence Judging own ability and competence.
    How capable of success they think they are.
    Native language proficiency The more academically sophisticated the student's native language knowledge and abilities, the easier it will be for that student to learn a second language, then the more motivated s/he will be. 
    First foreign language .
    External Factors
  • Encouragement
  • Expectations
  • Feedback
  • Scaffolding 
  • Task presentation
  • Teaching strategies & techniques
  • Rewards

  • Strategies for Teaching Culturally Diverse Students
  • Course content & Classroom atmosphere
  • Relevance
  • Attractiveness
  • Challenge
  • Relaxed, positive atmosphere (low affective filter)
  • Social Identity
    (Peer groups)
    Teenagers tend to be heavily influenced by their peer groups. In second language learning, peer pressure often undermines the goals set by parents and teachers. Peer pressure often reduces the desire of the student to work toward native pronunciation, because the sounds of the target language may be regarded as strange. For learners of English as a second language, speaking like a native speaker may unconsciously be regarded as a sign of no longer belonging to their native-language peer group. In working with secondary school students, it is important to keep these peer influences in mind and to foster a positive image for proficiency in a second language. 
    Role models Students need to have positive and realistic role models who demonstrate the value of being proficient in more
    than one language.
    Home support Support from home is very important for students' motivation to learn a second language. If parents value both the native language and English, communicate with their children in whichever language is most comfortable, and show support for and interest in their children's progress, the children will definitely be more motivated to learn the second language.
    Learning environment In order for the students to be motivated, the learning environment needs to be free from axiety; the student should not feel threatened or intimidated. In order for him/her to speak, s/he needs to feel s/he will be heard and that what s/he is saying is worth hearing. (Motivating Learners At South Korean Universities) by Janet S. Niederhauser)

    9- Instruments for Motivation Assessment:

    10- Implications & Strategies for L2 Learners' Motivation:

    Check Matching Exercise


    The greatest motivational act one person can do for another is to listen.--Roy E. Moody

    Dornyei (1994) suggests

     Dornyei (1998:131) suggests
    "Ten Commandments for Motivating Language Learners”

    1. Set a personal example with your own behavior.
    2. Create a pleasant, relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
    3. Present the task properly.
    4. Develop a good relationship with the learners.
    5. Increase the learner's linguistic self-confidence.
    6. Make the language classes interesting.
    7. Promote learner autonomy.
    8. Personalize the learning process.
    9. Increase the learners' goal-orientedness.
    10. Familiarize learners with the target language culture.

    Oxford & Shearin (1996:139) also offer Practical Suggestions for Teachers:

    1. Teachers can identify why students are studying the new language.

    2. Teachers can help shape students' beliefs about success and failure in L2 learning.

    3. Teachers can help students improve motivation by showing that L2 learning can be an exciting mental challenge, a career enhancer, a vehicle to cultural awareness and friendship and a key to world peace.

    4. Teachers can make the L2 classroom a welcoming, positive place where psychological needs are met and where language anxiety is kept to a minimum.

    5. Teachers can urge students to develop their own intrinsic rewards through positive self-talk, guided self-evaluation, and mastery of specific goals, rather than comparison with other students. Teachers can thus promote a sense of greater self-efficacy, increasing motivation to continue learning the L2.

    Keller (1983).He presents an instructional design model for motivation that is based upon a number of other theories. His model suggests a design strategy that encompasses four components of motivation:

        1. stimulating interest in the topic/ Attention,
        2. creating Relevance to students' lives,
        3. developing an expectancy of success and feelings of being in control / Confidence,
        4. producing Satisfaction in the outcome through intrinsic/extrinsic rewards.
    Keller (1987).The ARCS Model of Motivational Design is a well-known and widely applied model of instructional design. Simple, yet powerful, the ARCS Model is rooted in a number of motivational theories and concepts, (see Keller, 1983) most notably expectancy-value theory (e.g. Vroom, 1964; Porter and Lawler, 1968).
      In expectancy-value theory, "effort" is identified as the major measurable motivational outcome. For "effort" to occur, two necessary prerequisites are specified _ (1) the person must value the task and (2) the person must believe he or she can succeed at the task. Therefore, in an instructional situation, the learning task needs to be presented in a way that is engaging and meaningful to the student, and in a way that promotes positive expectations for the successful achievement of learning objectives.

      The ARCS Model identifies four essential strategy components for motivating instruction:

      1. [A]ttention strategies for stimulating and sustaining curiosity and interest;
      2. [R]elevance strategies that link to learners' needs, interests, and motives;
      3. [C]onfidence strategies that help students develop a positive expectation for successful achievement; and
      4. [S]atisfaction strategies that provide extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement for effort (Keller, 1983).

      Keller (1987) breaks each of the four ARCS components down into three strategy sub-components. The strategy sub-components and instructionally relevant examples are shown below.


      1. Perceptual Stimulation: provide novelty, surprise, incongruity or uncertainty. Ex. The teacher places a sealed box covered with question marks on a table in front of the class.
      2. Inquiry Stimulation: stimulate curiosity by posing questions or problems to solve. Ex. The teacher presents a scenario of a problem situation and asks the class to brainstorm possible solutions based on what they have learned in the lesson.
      3. Variability: incorporate a range of methods and media to meet students' varying needs. Ex. After displaying and reviewing each step in the process on the overhead projector, the teacher divides the class into teams and assigns each team a set of practice problems.


      1. Goal Orientation: present the objectives and useful purpose of the instruction and specific methods for successful achievement. Ex. The teacher explains the objectives of the lesson.
      2. Motive Matching: match objectives to student needs and motives. Ex. The teacher allows the students to present their projects in writing or orally to accommodate different learning needs and styles.
      3. Familiarity: present content in ways that are understandable and that are related to the learners' experience and values. Ex. The teacher asks the students to provide examples from their own experiences for the concept presented in class.


      1. Learning Requirements: inform students about learning and performance requirements and assessment criteria. Ex. The teacher provides students with a list of assessment criteria for their research projects and circulates examples of exemplary projects from past years.
      2. Success Opportunities: provide challenging and meaningful opportunities for successful learning. Ex. The teacher allows the students to practice extracting and summarizing information from various sources and then provides feedback before the students begin their research projects.
      3. Personal Responsibility: link learning success to students' personal effort and ability. Ex. The teacher provides written feedback on the quality of the students' performance and acknowledges the students' dedication and hard work.


      1. Intrinsic Reinforcement: encourage and support intrinsic enjoyment of the learning experience. Ex. The teacher invites former students to provide testimonials on how learning these skills helped them with subsequent homework and class projects.
      2. Extrinsic Rewards: provide positive reinforcement and motivational feedback. Ex. The teacher awards certificates to students as they master the complete set of skills.
      3. Equity: maintain consistent standards and consequences for success. Ex. After the term project has been completed, the teacher provides evaluative feedback using the criteria described in class.

    There are a variety of specific actions that teachers can take to increase motivation on classroom tasks. In general, these fall into the two categories discussed above: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. (Huitt, 2001)

    • Explain or show why learning a particular content or skill is important
    • Create and/or maintain curiosity
    • Provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations
    • Provide games and simulations
    • Set goals for learning
    • Relate learning to student needs
    • Help student develop plan of action
    • Provide clear expectations
    • Give corrective feedback
    • Provide valuable rewards
    • Make rewards available

    Some teaching strategies that can be used to foster motivation and provide better transfer opportunities of language skills include the following: (Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa, 1998)

    * * Encourage learners to take ownership in learning.

    Have learners take ownership of the learning assignment by letting them identify and decide for themselves relevant learning goals. This will motivate them to apply what they have learned to attain these learning goals.

    * * Promote intentional cognition or mindfulness to learning in various contexts.

    Learners must be able to practice language in multiple contexts in order to bridge domains and foster active abstraction of concepts learned (Bransford, et al. 1990). This will help learners recognize the relevance and transferability of different learning skills or knowledge.

    * * Increase authenticity of learning tasks and goals.

    Learners should recognize a real need to accomplish learning goals that are relevant and holistic (rather than task-specific). This prepares them for the complexities of real-world tasks that require them to use language skills and knowledge that have to be continually transferred.

    "The best way to create interest in a subject is to render it worth knowing, which means to make the knowledge gained usable in one's thinking beyond the situation in which learning has occurred." Bruner (1960, p.31)

    Some effective suggestions for improving the affective climate of the SL learning environment:
    By Paula Kristmanson


    Walking your talk is a great way to motivate yourself. No one likes to live a lie. Be honest with yourself, and you will find the motivation to do what you advise others to do.
    --Vince Poscente (Invinceable Principles)

     by Donna Levine
    There is inside you
    all of the potential to be whatever
    you want to be
    all of the energy to do whatever
    you want to do.

    Imagine yourself as you would like to be,
    doing what you want to do,
    and each day, take one step
    towards your dream.

    And though at times it may seem too
    difficult to continue,
    hold on to your dream.

    One morning you will awake to find
    that you are the person
    you dreamed of
    doing what you wanted to do
    simply because you had the courage
    to believe in your potential
    and to hold on to your dream.

    Additional sites:

    Keys to Motivation

    Techniques to Help You Get Motivated Today

    Get Up and Go - Motivation

    Motivation is the force that causes you to take action - apply the effort & commitment needed to do something.

    There are two important parts to motivation:
    Who are you doing
    it for?
    For myself OR others 
    (parents or teachers)
    What are you doing
    it for?
    To gain benefits OR 
    avoid unpleasantness

    People tend to be most successful when working toward positive outcomes on things they find personally fulfilling. In such cases they will do whatever it takes to get the result that they want. One of the most important tasks is to decide what you want . . .

    If you don't plan where you are heading, you might end up in an occupation or life style that is not very satisfying.

    If you haven't decided yet, identify a range of wishes for the future, and set about exploring the background of people who have achieved that lifestyle.

    Mapping out a plan to achieve your dreams is often called writing up a list of goals. Click here ( for an example.

    (Make a Treasure Map of your Goals:
    Make a map of the things that you wish to achieve during your life.
    Start by listing the key areas, then adding more detail.
    You will notice that each time you return to your map
    your vision for the future will become clearer.
    Use words, drawings or pictures from magazines.
    Start with a picture of yourself.
    A good strategy is to make a poster size collage for your
    bedroom wall to help you focus on your goals each day.)

    Whatever you call your preferred future direction, write it down, draw it, paint it, make a collage of your direction and work toward it.

    If you can find something better, simply adjust you goals and direction.

    Remember to link your goals to your school work.

    To create greater motivation for your school work take time to find as many positive connections between the subjects you are doing and possible benefits for achieving your goals.

    © Study Magic 1999

    What is motivation?

    Motivation is a desire to achieve a goal, combined with the energy to work towards that goal. Students who are motivated have a desire to undertake their study and complete the requirements of their course.

    Are you a motivated student?

    Being a motivated student doesn’t mean you are always excited or fully committed to your study, but it does mean you will complete the tasks set for you even when assignments or practicals are difficult, or seem uninteresting.

    What is 'loss of motivation'?

    You might experience loss of motivation as a reluctance to undertake an assignment or project, or attend a lecture or tutorial. As a result of loss of motivation you may be thinking about withdrawing from a subject, or taking leave from university for a semester,  for a year, or ‘forever’.

    You may experience loss of motivation as if it were a lost object or a lost friend. You might feel:

      • anxious
      • confused
      • frustrated
      • angry
      • uncertain
      • depressed
    How can motivation ‘be lost’?
     The most common reasons for loss of motivation are:
     Specific contributing factors might be:
    • a low mark or a series of low marks
    • getting behind on a program of study
    • responsibilities, other than study, taking priority
    • feeling isolated
    • study becoming irrelevant to short term or long term goals
    • a mismatch between the knowledge, beliefs or interests which a student has and the ideas with which they are coming in contact
    • the difficulty of subject material
    If you have experienced any of the above factors how have they affected you?

    Searching for motivation

    Just as you can ‘lose’ motivation, you can also ‘find’ motivation.

    The connecting link between losing motivation and finding it, is the search. The search will involve some focusing on how important the goal is that you are seeking, and some change to your behavior. It is likely to involve a number of steps.

      Give yourself some quality time to work through the steps in this program.

    Eight step plan to help you search for, and find motivation. The eight step plan for finding motivation to study can be shown as:

    Step 1    Give yourself time

    Step 2   Work with all of you

    Step 3   Focus on goals

    Step 4   Make study a priority

    Step 5   Feel good about yourself

    Step 6   Take care of your health

    Step 7   Visualization

    Step 8  Build on your knowledge

    1- Give yourself time

    You probably have not lost motivation overnight. You will need to give yourself time to find it again. Lost objects are most easily found when you:
  • are calm
  • have some time to search
  • are able to concentrate on one thing at a time
  • How can you begin to relax, give yourself time and concentrate on one thing at a time?

    2- Work with the whole you

    Keep in mind that loss of motivation is an experience which can affect your thoughts, your feelings and your body.
  • You might be feeling anxious or guilty.
  • You might be thinking that you will never be able to complete your work on time.
  • You might be finding it difficult to get your body physically moving in the morning.
  • Ask yourself the following questions, and list your answers in a copy of the Table "How am I?"
  • What am I feeling?
  • What am I thinking?
  • What is my physical state of health?
  • What are my goals about how I want my feelings,  thoughts and  health to be ?
  • activity.gif (598 bytes)Use a copy of the Table:"How am I?" to monitor your progress towards your goals.
    3- Focus on goals

    You need to know your

    When you have completed the  "My Goals" table ask you self the question:
    Where does study rate on my list of important goals?
  • study has been omitted from your list of goals or
  • is a low priority or
  • is not achievable,
  • then  you are experiencing loss of motivation to study.

    There may be many aspects of your life that are important to you other than study. You may, for example,

  • have family commitments,
  • want to have paid employment,
  • you may want to travel overseas.
  • Any of these may be more important goals for you than study.

    If you have a large number of goals, or study is a low priority for you, you may choose to

  • make an appointment with a counselor,
  • talk with a friend or
  • see a teacher
  • about what is happening for you in relation to study and how you can decide which goals to make priorities.

    Next Step:

    You can either

  • talk with a friend about your priorities or,
  • make an appointment to see a teacher or
  • make an appointment to see a counselor or

    4- Make study a priority

    If in Step 3 you discovered that study is a priority for you right now, you will need to get yourself going.

    activity.gif (598 bytes)Use the Make study a priority questionnaire to work out

    When you have answered the questionnaire you will have completed a study plan for yourself which includes goals, time management and self rewards.  With a study plan you will be able to undertake study and will be well on your way in your search for motivation.

    You might also like to search out how to:

  • manage  your time and study workload
  • avoid procrastination
  • 5- Feel good about yourself
    Feeling good about yourself and recognizing your achievements may be a key factor in helping you find motivation. When we have a sense of well being and self esteem we can tackle difficult or uninteresting tasks with a positive outlook.

    activity.gif (598 bytes)Use the "Feeling good about yourself" questionnaire to discover positive attributes about yourself and how to use them. You might find collecting positive attributes about yourself a difficult task. You could ask a close friend or a family member about positive aspects they recognize in you.

    6- Take care of your health
    Physical well being is also an important part of finding motivation. Studying is demanding physically as well as mentally and emotionally. Because studying requires so much sitting, reading and computer work it is important that you include exercise and healthy eating in your life.

    activity.gif (598 bytes)Use the "How healthy am I?" questionnaire to assess your level of health.


    7- Visualization: Encouraging your mind to work for you
    You might find that visualizing a situation, and a context in which you have successfully achieved your goals, is an effective motivational force. You can   visualize yourself studying at your desk at home, working through your study program easily and efficiently and then seeing yourself completing your work and handing it up.
    activity.gif (598 bytes)You can use the Visualization exercise for students to begin.

    If you can picture positive situations in your head then you have an image, or a visualization, which you can use daily before or during study to visualize yourself being motivated and successful. You might want to learn more about meditation which includes practicing visualization.

    8- Build on your knowledge
    You have now undertaken seven steps to help you in your search for motivation. Step 2 included the examination of your thoughts, feelings and your health. Step 8 will involve you in monitoring how you are, and using what you have discovered to help you in your search for motivation. You will need to use your list of answers from Step 2 as a base line to discover how undertaking the seven steps has helped you in your search for motivation.

    activity.gif (598 bytes)At weekly intervals, you can use the Keeping up the search for motivation checklist The checklist  will help you build on your knowledge about yourself in searching for, and maintaining, your motivation to study.

    Other useful web sites:
    Motivating Students:
    High Expectations:
    Student Motivation To Learn:
    Motivation in the Classroom:

        1- Why do people learn a second/foreign language?
        2- Definitions of L2
        3- Good L2 Learners
        4- Definitions of Motivation
        5- Sources of Motivation
        6- Theories of Motivation
        7- Models of Motivation
        8- Factors that Affect Motivation
        9- Instruments for Motivation Assessment
        10- Implications & Strategies

      "Researchers must reconceptualize L2 learning strategies to include the social and affective sides of learning along with the more intellectual sides. The L2 learner is not just a cognitive and metacognitive machine but, rather, a whole person. In strategy training, teachers should help students develop affective and social strategies, as well as intellectually related strategies, based on their individual learning styles, current strategy use, and specific goals." (Oxford, 1994)

      Developing life-long learners who are intrinsically motivated, display intellectual curiosity, find learning enjoyable, and continue seeking knowledge after their formal instruction has ended has always been a major goal of education. (Small, 1997)

      "Motivation is a fire from within. If someone else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very briefly."
      Stephen R. Covey

       "... given motivation, it is inevitable that a human being will learn a second language if he is exposed to the language data." (Corder 1981:1)

        Alderfer, C. (1972). Existence, relatedness, & growth. New York: Free Press.

        Ames, C., & Ames, R. (1989). Research in motivation in education. San Diego: Academic Press.

        Ames, R. and Ames C. (1991).  Motivation and Effective Teaching. Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction: Implications for Reform.  Idol, Lorna, and Beau Fly , Jones eds.  Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum and Associates.

        Ames, C. (1992). Classroom goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271.

        Arnold, J. (ed.) (1999). Affect in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

        Brophy, J. (1986). On Motivating Students. Occasional Paper No. 101. East Lansing, Michigan: Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University.  ED276 724.

        Brophy, J. (1987). Synthesis of Research on Strategies for Motivating Students To Learn. Educational Leadership: 40-48. EJ362 226

        Bruner, J. S. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard. [EJ 043 959]

        Chi, M. T. H. (1988). Knowledge-constrained inferences about new domain-related concepts: Contrasting experts and novices. Pittsburgh University, PA: Learning Research & Development Center. [ED 297 882]

        Corder, S.P. (1981). Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

        Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. (1991). Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language Learning, 41, 469-512. [EJ 435 997]

        Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

        Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 78, 273-284.

        Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Understanding L2 motivation: On with the challenge! Modern Language Journal, 78, 515-523.

        Dornyei, Z. (1998). Survey Article: Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching, 31, 117-135.

        Dörnyei, Z., & Ottó, I. (1998). Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics (Thames Valley University, London), 4, 43-69.

        Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and Researching Motivation. Harlow, England: Longman.

        Ely, C. (1986). Language Learning Motivation: A Descriptive and Causal Analysis. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 28-33.

        Fisher, Robert. (1990). Teaching Children to Think,  Basil Blackwell

        Gardner, R.C. & Lambert, W.E. (1959). Motivational Variables in Second Language Acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266-272.

        Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and Motivation in Second-Language Learning. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers.

        GARDNER, R.C., Tremblay, P.F. (1994). On motivation : measurement and conceptual considerations. Modern Language Journal 78:4. 524-527.

        Gardner, R. C., & Tremblay, P. F. (1994). On motivation, research agendas, and theoretical perspectives. Modern Language Journal, 79, 359-368.

        Keller, J.M.(1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

        Keller, J.M. (1987a, Oct.). Strategies for stimulating the motivation to learn. Performance and Instruction, 26(8), 1-7. (EJ 362 632)

        Keller, J.M. (1987b). IMMS: Instructional materials motivation survey. Florida State University.

        Keller, J.M. & Keller, B.H. (1989). Motivational delivery checklist. Florida State University.

        Krashen, S. (1981), Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning, Pergamon

        Krashen, S. (1982), Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, Pergamon
        Krashen, S. (1985), The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications, Longman
        Krashen, S. (1985), Language Acquisition and Language Education, Alemany Press

        McDonough, S.H. (1981), Psychology in Foreign Language Teaching, London, Allen & Unwin.

        McClelland, D.N. (1998), An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Orientations of Japanese College Students Learning EFL, University of Surrey, English Language Institute. M.A. Linguistics.

        Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.

        Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., & Todesco, A. (1975). The good second language learner. TESL Talk, 6, 58-75.

        O'Malley, J.M., & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

        Oxford, R.L. (1990a). Language learning strategies and beyond: A look at strategies in the context of styles. In S.S. Magnan (Ed.), Shifting the instructional focus to the learner (pp. 35-55). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

        Oxford, R.L. (1990b). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

        Oxford, R. L. (1994). Where are we regarding language learning motivation? Modern Language Journal, 78, 512-515.

        Oxford, R. L. and Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 12-28.

        Oxford, R. L. (ed.). (1996). Language learning motivation : pathways to the new century. Honolulu, Hawai'i : Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.

        Oxford, RL & Shearin, J. (1996). Language learning motivation in a new key. In Oxford, RL (Ed.). Language Learning Motivation: Pathways to the New Century. Honolulu: University of Hawai Press. 121-44

        Piaget, J. (1972). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books.

        Piaget, J. (1990). The child's conception of the world. New York: Littlefield Adams.

        Ramirez, A. (1986). Language learning strategies used by adolescents studying French in New York schools. Foreign Language Annals, 19, 131-141.

        Reiss, M.A. (1985). The good language learners: Another look. Canadian Modern Language Review, 41, 511-23.

        Richard-Amato, P. (1997). Affect and Related Factors in Second and Foreign Language Acquisition. TESOL's Voices of Experience Series.

        Rubin, J. (1975). What the "good language learner" can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51.

        Scarcella, R.C. & Oxford, R.L. (1992). The Tapestry of Language Learning. Heinle & Heinle Publishers. USA

        Schumann, J. H. (1978). The acculturation model for second language acquisition. In R. C. Gingras (Ed.), Second language acquisition and foreign language teaching (pp. 27-50). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

        Schumann, J. H. (1986.). Research on the acculturation model for second language acquisition. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 7, 379-92.

        Shaaban, K. & Ghaith, G. (2000). “Effect of Gender, Proficiency Level, First Foreign Language, and University Major on Students’ Motivation to Learn English as a Foreign Language”. Foreign Language Annals, 33 (6), 632-644.

        Small, R.V. (1997). Assessing the motivational quality of world wide websites. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. (ED number pending, IR 018 331)

        Stipek, D. (1988). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
        Prentice Hall.

        Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

        Vygotsky, L., & Vygotsky, S. (1980). Mind in society : The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

        Vygotsky, L. (1986). Thought and language. Boston: MIT Press.

        Wen, X. (1997). Motivation and Language Learning with Students of Chinese. Foreign Language Annals, 30, 235-250.

    Related Links:

        Affect in Language Learning

        How Can Teachers Develop Students' Motivation -- and Success?

        An exercise in Motivating yourself


        ASKERIC_ Motivation sites

        A Tripartite Model of Motivation for Achievement: Attitude/Drive/Strategy
        Bruce W. Tuckman, The Ohio State University

        Brittanica- Article on Motivation

        Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition- Intrinsic Motivation

        Theories of motivation


        Get Up and Go - Motivation

        Hard Work and High Expectations: Motivating Students to Learn
        June 1992- U.S. Department of Education

        How Is Language Acquired?

        Increasing Student Engagement and Motivation: From Time-on-Task to Homework
        Cori Brewster & Jennifer Fager
        OCTOBER 2000

        Krashen's Input Hypothesis Model of L2 learning

        Language Learning Strategies: An Update
        Rebecca Oxford, University of Alabama- October 1994

        Language Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching
        Murat Hismanoglu

        Motivation- by W. Huitt

        Motivation- By leon Bantjes

        Motivation- What Can I Do When I Get Discouraged?

        Motivation as a Contributing Factor in Second Language Acquisition

        Motivation in Instructional Design
        by Ruth V. Small (1997)

        Motivation, Where does it come from?  Where does it go?
        by Andrew Littlejohn
        ENGLISH TEACHING professional, Issue 19, March 2001

        Motivating Today's Students: The Same Old Stuff Just Doesn't Work
        ERIC- By Linda Lumsden

        Motivation and Transfer in Language Learning. ERIC Digest.
        ERIC Identifier: ED427318
        Publication Date: 1998
        Author: Ngeow, Karen Yeok-Hwa

        Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation. Working Papers in Applied Linguistics Dörnyei, Z., & Ottó, I. (1998).

        Motivation: Reopening the research agenda.
        Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. (1991)

        "Motivation is a fire from within. If someone else tries to light that fire under you, chances are it will burn very briefly."
        Stephen R. Covey

        Motivation- 6 major factors

        Motivation: Web Sites

        Motivation in SLA- part 1

        Motivational Quotes

        Motivational Quotations by Dale Carnegie

        Motivation and Middle School Students. ERIC Digest.

        Quick Motivation Test

        Quotes for Teachers

        Research Paper: Motivation in Second Language Education
        Mike Conner- Iowa State University Ames, Iowa

        School Leadership and Student Motivation. ERIC Digest, Number 71.

        Second Language Acquisition Topics

        Sources of Motivation Approaches

        Strategies to Enhance Adult Motivation to Learn
        by Raymond J. Wlodkowski
        summarized from Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction
        by Michael W. Galbraith, 1991

        Student motivation to learn- ERIC database

        Theories of motivation- activities

        The role of affect in language learning with implications for teaching in Japan
        Stella Yamasaki & Tatsuroh Yamasaki- Hosei University

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