Integrating Technology in the Classroom
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPaCK)
Edited by the AACTE.Committee on Innovation and Technology
Notes by Nada Salem Abisamra
page is intended to just give you an idea about some of the content of
which is a WONDERFUL resource for any teacher or educational institution interested in
integrating technology in the classroom, in teaching for the future....
My gratitude goes to Dr. Natalie Milman and Dr. Brian Casemore for giving me the opportunity to get acquainted with it.
My notes are ... just notes I took while reading the handbook.
So, they are not linear... they are not exhaustive... they highly reflect my personal interests and needs.
Suggestion or Recommendation?
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"If we Teach Today as we Taught Yesterday, then we
Rob our Children of Tomorrow"
-- John Dewey
OUTLINE Preface Part I- What is TPCK (now called TPACK)?Chapter 2- Bridging digital and cultural divides: TPCK for equity of access to technology-- Mario Antonio Kelly Teaching is an ill-structured, complex domain Understanding technology Technology and its complex role in teaching- Why does introducing technology complicate the processes of teaching? Teaching with technology as a wicked problem Characteristics of wicked problems The TPCK Model: Content knowledge (CK) Pedagogical knowledge (PK) Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) Technology knowledge (TK) Technological content knowledge (TCK) Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) Teacher knowledge in practice, or teachers as curriculum designers Bricolage Implications for teacher education and teacher professional development Part II- Integrating TPCK into Specific Subject Areas: (K-6 Literacy, English, World Languages)Chapter 3- TPCK in K-6 Literacy Education: It’s Not That Elementary!-- Denise A. Schmidt and Marina Gurbo
- The technology skills that teachers should develop in today's students
- The International Reading Association- 2002
- The technological content knowledge (TCK) that preservice and in-service literacy teachers need to have nowadays
- Benefits of technology use
- Teachers can use TPCK in the classroom for...
- E-TPCK = English-TPCK
- Transforming Teacher Education Through Technology Infusion (PT3)
- Technology Integrationists
- Principles of a New Literacies Perspective
- ACTFL/NCATE Program Standards for the Preparation of Foreign Language Teachers
- The knowledge that foreign language teachers need to have to integrate technology in thoughtful and pedagogically sound ways into the curriculum:
Part III- Integrating TPCK into Teacher Education and Professional DevelopmentChapter 11- Guiding preservice teachers in developing TPCK-- Margaret L. Niess
Chapter 12- TPCK in in-service education: assisting experienced teachers' "planned improvisations"-- Judith B. Harris
- "If we teach today as we taught yesterday, then we rob our children of tomorrow"-- John Dewey
- Thinking about the thinking involved in TPCK
- How must preservice preparation programs be arranged to assure that the preservice teachers gain the ways of knowing and thinking involved in TPCK?
- Methods courses should provide the following experiences in Technology-Mediated Classrooms (TMCs)
Preface (pp. vii-viii; by Brown & Cato)
- The means, mode, and manner of instructing the present and forthcoming generations of school-aged children require fundamental shifts in the pedagogical science called teaching.
- The challenge facing the modern teacher is how to incorporate multimodalities and differentiated educational technologies to facilitate and/or enhance student learning (Mishra & Koehler, 2006).
- The solution: teachers must acquire and develop technological pedagogical content knowledge.
- => the role of technology in the classroom with regard to the acquisition and exhibition of teacher knowledge and instructional skill.
- A dissonance can occur when students possess technology skills more advanced than those of their teachers.
- => the effectiveness of classroom instruction is maximized when teaching and technology are in symbiosis (go hand in hand).
- Teachers play important roles in determining the time, place, and manner technology is engaged in the classroom (the "if, when, and how" of technology use).
- This handbook describes a broad array of technology-infused learning strategies and explains how teachers can facilitate the use of those learning strategies as a part of curriculum-based instruction.
- ... a significant and practical shift is required to effect high-quality teaching across the subject areas via myriad technological modalities.
Part I- What is TPCK (now called TPACK)?
Chapter 1- Introducing TPCK -- Koehler & Mishra
- P. 3: TPCK = a framework for teacher knowledge for technology integration. It builds on Shulman's (1986) construct of PCK to include technology knowledge.
- TPCK framework: complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: content, pedagogy, and technology.
- Greater emphasis should be placed on the ideas of teachers as "curriculum designers."
- Pp. 3-4: Teaching is an ill-structured, complex domain:
- It is characterized by a complexity of concepts and cases with a wide variability of features across situations
- It is characterized by a dense context-dependent inter-connectedness between knowledge and practice
- The application of knowledge in teaching involves many different conceptual structures and perspectives that play out in novel and unique ways
- Expertise in teaching is dependent on flexible access to and application of highly organized systems of knowledge that must continually shift and evolve based on the contexts within which they are applied
- Teachers practice in a highly complex dynamic environment that asks them to integrate the following:
- knowledge of student thinking and learning
- knowledge of the subject matter (and, increasingly,)
- knowledge of technology
- It is akin to other real-world problems that lack required information and do not have a known correct nor best solution
- Pp. 5-6: Understanding technology:
- Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems... Virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology.
- The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials.
- Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has, at its basis, the development of the Internet and the computer.
- Two uses of the word "technology:"
- individual tool or technique > technologies
- Internet technology
- computer technology
- word-processing technology
- microscope technology
- all tools, techniques, and knowledge
- Particular technologies have specific affordances and constraints.
- Technologies are neither neutral nor unbiased.
- Particular technologies have their own propensities, biases, and inherent attributes that make them more suitable for certain tasks than others.
- "Functional Fixedness:" (a cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used)
- The manner in which the ideas we hold about an object's function can inhibit our ability to use the object for a different function (Birch, 1945; German & barrett, 2005).
- Functional Fixedness often stands in the way of creative uses of technologies.
- Overcoming Functional Fixedness is essential for the intelligent and creative application of technology for learning.
- Creative uses of technology require us to go beyond this Functional Fixedness so that we can innovatively repurpose existing tools toward pedagogical ends.
- P.p. 6-10: Technology and its complex role in teaching
- Why does introducing technology complicate the processes of teaching?
- There are social and institutional contexts that are unsupportive of teachers' efforts to integrate technology: the problem of technology integration has often become the “Somebody Else’s Problem” (SEP) syndrome (Koehler, Mishra, Hershey & Peruski, 2004). Technology and pedagogy are often considered domains that are ruled by different groups of people: teachers and techies
It is not easy for teachers to navigate between these two worlds, worlds in which the norms, values, and language can be different.
- technologists view non-technologists as Luddites, conservative, resistant to change, and oblivious to the transformative power of technology.
- non-technologists view technologists as being shallowly enthusiastic, ignorant of education and learning theories, and unaware of the realities of classrooms and schools.
- These two groups read different journals, visit different conferences, and can have fundamentally different visions of the role of technology in the classroom.
- The chasm between these two groups is not unbridgeable, because it is clear that teachers use technology.
A complete understanding of teaching with technology involves breaking down this false dichotomy between pedagogy and technology.
- Teachers are often provided with inadequate training: many teachers do not consider themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the classroom + Many teachers do not appreciate the value or relevance of technology to the classroom
- Research suggests that an innovation is less likely to be adopted if it deviates too greatly from prevailing values, pedagogical beliefs and practices of the teachers (Zhao, Pugh, Sheldon & Byers, 2002)
- At pre- and in-service levels: teachers need to learn to be flexible and creative; they need to learn to transcend Functional Fixedness.
- Most of the technologies under consideration in the current literature (e.g., computers, software, and the Internet) are newer and digital. Newer digital technologies have some inherent properties that make it difficult for teachers to apply them in straightforward ways. Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by
Digital technologies—such as computers, and hand-held devices, and software applications—in contrast, are
- specificity (a pencil is for writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects);
- stability (pencils, pendulums, microscopes and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and
- transparency of function (the inner-workings of the pencil or the pendulum are quite simple and directly related to their function) (Simon, 1969).
- protean (usable in many different ways) (Papert, 1980)- Can be used as a
- tool for communication (email, IM)
- tool for design and construction (websites, scientific modeling...)
- tool for inquiry
- tool for artistic expression
- => difficult to learn and use
- unstable (rapidly changing)
- the knowledge required to learn to use digital technologies is never fixed, changes quickly > so we continually need to keep up with the changes
- as a consequence of rapid change, the technologies we use are often not fully tested and robust > have flaws => teachers need to become life-long learners willing to contend with ambiguity, frustration, and change.
- opaque (the inner-workings are hidden from users) (Turkle, 1995)
- Most software tools available today are designed for the world of business and work > adapting them to the classroom requires working through this opacity (virtual domain in which cause and effect relationships are divorced from everyday rules) and our Functional Fixedness to reconfigure and repurpose these existing technologies for pedagogical purposes.
- Classroom contexts are varied and diverse- There is not “one way” that will work for everyone- No perfect solution. The decision to use a technology in one’s teaching introduces a myriad of affordances for teaching content and engaging learners, as well as a number of constraints on what functions technologies can serve in the classroom.
- The contexts of teaching reflect several divides, each of which further complicates the issue of technology integration in classrooms.
=> Divide between
=> Divide between
- the digital natives (the first generation of students to live and grow up entirely surrounded by digital technology) and the
- the digital immigrants (the teachers who have “migrated” to this technology later in life) (Prensky, 2001).
- The natives represent a challenge to immigrant teachers, because of differences in comfort levels and knowledge of technology, and a concomitant clash of culture, language, and values.
- those who have access to the latest technology, and
- those who do not have access to the latest technology
- P.p. 10-12: Teaching with technology as a wicked problem
Technology integration has often been considered a kind of problem solving, the goal of which is to find the appropriate technological solutions to pedagogical problems. Integrating technology in the classroom, however, should be viewed as a “wicked problem” (Rittel & Webber, 1973), not as as a “normal” or “tame problem” that can be tackled in conventional ways.
Characteristics of wicked problems:
- Wicked problems have incomplete, contradictory and changing requirements.
- Solutions to wicked problems are often difficult to realize (and maybe even recognize) because of complex interdependencies among a large number of contextually bound variables.
- Wicked problems cannot be solved in a traditional linear fashion, because the problem definition itself evolves as new solutions are considered and/or implemented. Rittel and Webber stated that while attempting to solve a wicked problem, the solution of one of its aspects may reveal or create another, even more complex problem.
- Wicked problems have no stopping rule—and solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong, simply "better," "worse," "good enough," or "not good enough."
- Every wicked problem is essentially unique and novel. There are so many factors and conditions—all dynamic—that no two wicked problems are alike.
- Solutions to wicked problems will always be custom-designed. For this reason, there is no definitive solution to a technology integration problem. Each issue raised by technology integration presents an ever evolving set of interlocking issues and constraints.
The diversity of teachers, students, and technology coordinators who operate in the social context bring different
- objectives, and
- In contexts such as these, the best we can hope for is satisficing, i.e. achieving a satisfactory solution, an outcome that, given the circumstances, is good enough.
- P.p. 12-20: The TPCK Model
> The TPCK framework builds on Shulman’s (1987, 1986) descriptions of Pedagogical Content Knowledge to describe how teachers’ understanding of technologies and pedagogical content knowledge interact with one another to produce effective teaching with technology.
Components of the TPCK model:
- Content knowledge (CK)
- "knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught" (p. 13). It would include (Shulman, 1986) knowledge of
- organizational frameworks,
- evidence and proof,
- + established practices and approaches towards developing such knowledge.
- in science: knowledge of
- scientific facts and theories,
- the scientific method,
- evidence-based reasoning.
- in art appreciation: knowledge of
- art history,
- famous paintings,
- artists and their historical contexts
- aesthetic and psychological theories for evaluating art.
- content knowledge, in and of itself, is an ill-structured domain, and issues of content can be areas of significant contention and disagreement.
- Pedagogical knowledge (PK)
- deep knowledge about the
- processes of teaching and learning
- practices or methods of teaching and learning
- overall educational
- knowledge about
- student learning
- how students construct knowledge and acquire skills
- how students develop habits of mind and positive dispositions towards learning.
- As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an understanding of
- social and
- developmental theories of learning
- and how they apply to students in the classroom.
- classroom management
- lesson plan development and implementation
- student evaluation
- techniques or methods used in the classroom
- the nature of the target audience
- strategies for evaluating student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands
- Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)
- > "knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content" (p. 14)
- > according to Schulman (1987, p. 15), PCK is "the ability of a teacher to transform content knowledge... in pedagogically powerful ways... that adapt to students' abilities and backgrounds in a classroom context" (Handbook p. 64).
- Pedagogically powerful ways:
- teaching strategies
- lesson plan development and implementation
- classroom management
- student assessment
- assessment and
- the conditions that promote learning
- the links among curriculum, assessment and pedagogy.
- effective teaching:
- an awareness of common misconceptions and ways of looking at them,
- the importance of forging links and connections between different content ideas,
- students’ prior knowledge,
- alternative teaching strategies
- alternative ways of looking at the same idea or problem
> transformation of the subject matter for teaching > the teacher
- interprets the subject matter,
- finds multiple ways to represent it, and
- adapts and tailors the instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge.
Technology knowledge (TK)
- always in a state of flux
- any definition of technology knowledge is in danger of becoming outdated
- However, there are certain ways of thinking about and working with technology that can apply to all technology tools.
In that sense, our definition of TK is close to that of Fluency of Information Technology (FITness) as proposed by Committee of Information Technology Literacy of the National Research Council (NRC, 1999).
Fluency of Information Technology (FITness):
- goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy
- persons understand information technology broadly enough
- to apply it productively at work and in their everyday lives,
- to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the achievement of a goal, and
- to continually adapt to changes in information technology.
- requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving than does the traditional definition of computer literacy.
- This conceptualization of TK does not posit an “end state” but rather sees it developmentally, as evolving over a lifetime of generative, open-ended interaction with technology.
Technological content knowledge (TCK)
- TCK = an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence and constrain one another.
- Teachers need to
- master more than the subject matter they teach,
- have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of technology
- understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and
- understand how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.
- Technology might constrain the types of possible representations but it conversely affords the construction of newer and more varied representations.
Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK)
- It is how the use of particular technologies changes both teaching and learning.
- So what is needed here is the following:
- knowing the pedagogical affordances (qualities) and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies.
- getting a deeper understanding of the constraints and affordances of technologies and the disciplinary contexts within which they function.
- => knowing which technological tools to use, knowing how to properly use them, and knowing how those are pedagogically appropriate to the discipline in question
TPK becomes particularly important because most popular software programs are not designed for educational purposes. Software programs are usually designed for
- a businesses environment -- Microsoft Office Suite (Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Entourage, and MSN Messenger)Teachers need to reject functional fixedness, and develop skills to look beyond the immediate technology and “reconfigure it” for their own pedagogical purposes.
- entertainment/communication/social networking -- web-based technologies such as blogs or podcasts
=> Teachers should be
- creative and
- seeking of technology, not for its own sake, but for the sake of advancing student learning and understanding.
- Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK)
- TPCK emerges from an interaction of content, pedagogy, and technology knowledge. It involves the proper combination of all three, including the skill of teaching with technology.
- TPCK is the interconnection and intersection of content, pedagogy, and technology (Handbook, p. 224).
- TPCK requires
TPCK is a form of knowledge that expert teachers bring into play any time they teach.
- an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies;
- pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content;
- knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face;
- knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.
Each “wicked problem” that a teacher encounters is unique, and there is no single technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching.
- Teachers need to flexibly navigate between content, pedagogy, and technology and the interactions among them.
- Teachers should not ignore the complexity inherent in each knowledge component > this can lead to oversimplified solutions or failure.
- Teachers need to develop fluency and cognitive flexibility not just in each of these key domains (T, P, and C) but also in the manner in which these domains interrelate, so that they can effect solutions that are sensitive to specific contexts. > they need to have a deep, flexible, pragmatic and nuanced understanding of teaching with technology.
- Teachers should not view any of the three components (content, pedagogy, and technology) in isolation from the others. Teaching and learning with technology exist in a dynamic transactional relationship (Bruce, 1997; Dewey & Bentley, 1949; Rosenblatt, 1978) between the three components in our framework.
- Teachers should continually create, maintain, and re-establish a dynamic equilibrium between each component.
- P.p. 20-23: Teacher knowledge in practice, or teachers as curriculum designers
Perkins suggests that practitioners have to "learn to see through design-colored glasses” and, "be inventive" (p. 36) in how we approach the problems in our fields.
The teacher is the primary, if not exclusive conduit for any changes that can occur in the classroom. As Schwab says:
"Teachers will not and cannot be merely told what to do… Teachers practice an art. Moments of choice of what to do, how to do it, with whom and at what pace, arise hundreds of times a school day, and arise differently every day and with every group of students" (Joseph Schwab, 1983, p. 245).What this quote makes clear is that curricula do not exist independently of teachers. Teachers are “an integral part of the curriculum constructed and enacted in classrooms” (Clandinin & Connelly, 1992 p. 363). The teacher, Dewey argued, is not merely the creator of the curriculum, but is a part of it: teachers are curriculum designers. The idea of teachers as curriculum designers is based on an awareness of the fact that implementation decisions lie primarily in the hands of particular teachers in particular classrooms. Teachers are active participants in any implementation or instructional reform we seek to achieve, and thus require a certain degree of autonomy and power in making pedagogical decisions. Teachers construct curricula through an organic process of iterative design and refinement (involving repetition), negotiating among existing constraints, to create contingent conditions for learning.
- beliefs, and
- Curriculum design as bricolage emphasizes
- situational creativity
- tactically and contingently selecting and unselecting elements from what is available.
- Teachers constantly negotiate a balance between technology, pedagogy, and content in ways that are appropriate to the specific parameters of an ever-changing educational context.
Implications for Teacher Education and Teacher Professional Development:
Approaches that merely teach skills (technology or otherwise) do not go far enough.
- Learning about technology is different than learning what to do with it.
- A solid understanding of knowledge in each individual domain would be the basis for developing TPCK.
The spiral-like development of TPCK.
- Digital technologies require a greater level of thought and work on the part of the teacher
- Teacher-training programs may seek to develop TPCK in a gradual and spiral-like manner, beginning possibly with more standard and familiar technologies (areas in which teachers may already have developed TPCK), and moving on to more advanced or non-familiar technological solutions.
The need for a greater emphasis on the demands of subject matter.
- Teachers should understand that the various affordances and constraints of technology differ by
- curricular subject matter content
- pedagogical approach.
Practice is an important route to learning.
- Learning in complex and ill-structured domains often happens best through working through problems or cases (Shulman, 1986; Williams, 1992)—that is, working with the wicked problems posed by integrating technology into effective practice.
- When designers tackle these problems, their solutions are generative, in that each solution leads to newer knowledge, and unintended consequences, which are likely to lead to further wicked problems.
- The learning of new concepts and their inter-relationships comes from practice; not the rote application of general principles.
<=> Integrating technology into effective practice is considered a wicked problem whose solutions are generative: each one leads to new knowledge, accidental consequences, and maybe more wicked problems.
- => Teacher educators must find ways to provide preservice teachers multiple opportunities to work through these problems of practice before they enter their first classrooms, whether by internships, case-studies (traditional or video), or problem-based learning scenarios.
Context is important to learning and situating teacher knowledge.
- There are few—perhaps no—general principles that apply in every situation.
- Each context requires a different principle.
- Teachers need to be flexible and have a deep understanding of the interactions among the bodies of knowledge (T, P, C), and how they are bound in particular contexts (including knowledge of particular students, school social networks, parental concerns, etc.)
- Teachers need to actively adapt to multiple contexts and changing conditions, rather than trying to apply general approaches.
Chapter 2- Bridging digital and cultural divides: TPCK for equity of access to technology-- Mario Antonio Kelly
- => Addressing issues of equity of access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for students from diverse backgrounds.
- The issue of equity of access has many foci, including
- disability status,
- geography (urban-rural residency),
- race and ethnicity,
- socio-economic status
> It is the latter two that are the focus of this chapter.
- Students in the 21st century have to be able to
- individually navigate and sort-through vast digital repositories of knowledge
- make accurate judgments about the quality, authenticity, relevance and applicability of what they find. I
- work collaboratively with others
- in person
- over great physical, often global, distances
- with others who are culturally different
- Children from low-income families, and those from minority families, including English language learners (ELLs) are at a distinct disadvantage. Not only is their overall achievement lower, but their access to technology in school is relatively limited.
Technological pedagogy for bridging the first digital divide2nd Digital Divide: Access to achievement enhancing Technology Mediated Instruction (TMI) in school, and technology mediated activities outside of school
1. Work with school administrators to secure after school access to school ICT.
2. Work with parents and others to identify public ICT facilities in the community.
3. Develop strategies to counter problems at public ICT facilities.
4. Seek assistance from local colleges and universities.
5. Take steps to learn about the ICT access and history of students in the classroom.
Survey the class early in the school year to determine out of school access to technology, history of ICT use and level of skill.
6. Advocate for the fair and effective distribution of ICT resources.
If teachers lack technology skills, encourage school administrators to provide professional development before the large scale purchase of equipment that may be poorly used or not used at all. Suggest purchasing one or two carts of laptops that can be shared by many classrooms as opposed to equipping every classroom.
7. Plan for equipment failure.
Technological pedagogy for bridging the second digital divide
Part of the solution to the problem of the second digital divide is to
- build effective technological pedagogical practices into standards based curricula (Atwater, 2000; Lynch, 200).
- improve the performance outcomes for teachers (and teacher education programs).
3rd Digital Divide: Access to culturally compatible (or at least culturally sensitive) TMI—teachers knowledgeable about multicultural education, and able to incorporate this knowledge into teaching with technology.
What individual teachers can do in the absence of systemic changes:
1. At the start of an academic term take steps to learn about the prior ICT knowledge and skills of students in the classroom.
2. Determine the required competencies for each activity and whether all students have them
3. If there is wide variation in the prior technology or subject knowledge of students, then use this variation as a variable pairing or otherwise organizing some TMI activities.
4. Expose students to a variety of ICT, including computers, the Internet, visualization software.
5. Avoid educational technological performativity—merely running students through a checklist of technology activities of skills for the sake of being able to state that they were exposed, but with little concern about whether they really understand and are able to apply the knew knowledge in meaningful, purposeful ways (Lyotard, 1984; Lankasshear & Knobel, 2003, Warschauer, Knobel, & Stone, 2004).
6. Use drill and practice when necessary, but not excessively, and not exclusively for any group.
7. Develop activities that encourage students to use ICT to explore natural phenomena, experience scientific phenomena, extend their thinking, create multiple representations of their understanding, communicate with teachers and peers (Edelson, 1998; Hug, Krajcik, & Marx, 2005; Linn, 1998; Spitulnik, Stratford, Krajcik, & Soloway, 1998). In addition to increased understanding and higher achievement, another important result is likely to be increased motivation (Blumefield, Soloway, Marx, Krajcik, Guzdial, & Palincsar, 1991).
8. Assign creative, problem-solving activities that require application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation—e.g. multiple step projects that require searching the Internet, evaluating what is found and then applying it to the solution of a problem.
9. Avoid using ICT to engage in defensive teaching (Garrison and Bromley, 2004), and especially avoid granting basic access to ICT as a reward.
> Access to culture-sensitive technological pedagogical practices
Technological pedagogy for bridging the third digital divide
1. Analyze TMI before, during and after lessons. Identify specific culture components and attempt to determine whether and how they have affected teaching and learning.
2. Review software and multimedia programs for bias or insensitivity.
3. Provide a balance of individual assignments and group TMI activities.
4. Make TMI activities consistent with "Good Teaching"*. Assign creative, problem-solving activities that require application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation—e.g. multiple step projects that require searching the Internet, evaluating what is found and then applying it to the solution of a problem.
5. Use TMI activities to foster an "Equitable Classroom"**
• Do not lock students into a group for an entire semester or academic year. However, extend groups for sufficient time to enable the development of working relationships and the completion of meaningful projects.6. Use information obtained at the start of the academic year to identify and meet the unique needs of students.
• Assign different roles or tasks to group members and make sure that all students experience the full range of roles. In particular, make sure minority and low-income students experience leadership roles with technology.
• Rotate the membership of groups.
- engages students with major concepts and ideas
- has them applying ideals
- encourages them to question common sense
- engages them with important issues in their lives and encourages them to reflect upon these issues
- has them learn to perfect their work by redoing and polishing
- has them using technology in meaningful ways.
** "Equitable Classroom"
Creating an equitable classroom is not an easy task. It is even more challenging when the classroom is multilingual, multicultural, multiethnic, and multi-income and ICT is the medium of instruction. Classrooms become equitable when:
- teachers broaden the conception of what it means to be smart to allow multiple ways of demonstrating multiple types of abilities
- teachers assess these in multiple ways
- students interact with each other in the context of meaningful group activities that require
- discussing ideas,
- deliberating and coming to decisions,
- learning to resolve intellectual and social conflicts (Cohen & Lotan, 2004).
- Technology Mediated Instruction (TMI) for English Language Learners (ELLs)
In a case study of Adelante Elementary School in California, Warschauer, Grant, Del Real, & Rousseau (2004) provided a good model of the TMI for English language learners (ELLs). A teacher at Adelante Elementary School, Mr. Molina, infused technology into each of the projects students had to complete as part of thematic literature units.
Pre-reading, independent reading, and post-reading activities each used a variety of technology to offer students
Pre-reading technology mediated activities to build student background knowledge for the material to be read included relevant content and images downloaded from the Internet and used to engage the whole class in a discussion. Individual students could also visit websites through a teacher created Webquest. These activities provided a basis for discussions among students, discussions that provided opportunities for practicing language use in a cooperative group.
- choices (and some control),
- social interaction,
- technology skill development
- while limiting the monotony of drill and practice
Independent reading activities included taking computerized quizzes in the Accelerated Reader program (the school library had 16,000 books for which the quizzes are available). It should be noted that the program was used to encourage independent student reading and to evaluate it, not to teach reading skills and strategies. The teacher, Mr. Molina monitored the latter by having students fill out cards describing the strategies they used and discussing these and the books with them.
Post-reading activities involved the extensive use of technology to help students deconstruct texts and better understand their structure and genres.
- They used cognitive mapping software to interpret and outline, often having to reread texts for this purpose.
- They searched the Internet for visual representations of texts and in doing so enhanced their vocabulary (figuring out the best words for desired images will have that effect) and technology skills.
Chapter 3- TPCK in K-6 Literacy Education: It’s Not That Elementary!-- Denise A. Schmidt and Marina Gurbo
- The knowledge of HOW, WHEN, and WHY to use technology is as important today in effectively teaching literacy as CK and PK. (p. 61)
- We need to prepare current and future literacy educators to critically examine
- how technology might be used to teach literacy more effectively
- how technology might change the way students actually learn to read and write
- The definition of literacy is ever changing. It is different from what it meant in the past and is different from what it will mean in the future (p. 62).
- It is crucial to acknowledge the importance of role technology is nowadays playing in schools and our daily lives. Hence, it is necessary to "accommodate the influence electronic environments and digital media have had on literacy development and instruction" (p. 62).
- The technology skills that teachers should develop in today's students: (due to, according to Lee, the "uneven quality of technology enhance resources" (p. 62)
- critical media skills:
- informational literacy
- computer literacy
- film and video literacy
- The International Reading Association- 2002:
The nature of literacy is constantly being redefined by the Internet and other forms of Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
- word processors
- web editors
- presentation software
<=> "To become fully literate in today's world, students must become proficient in the new literacies of ICT" (The International Reading Association, 2002, p. 2-- In the TPCK Handbook p. 63)
<=> So, the knowledge base related to literacy education that today's literacy educators need to have should be about
- content knowledge:
- language structure
- pedagogical knowledge+
- teaching strategies
- lesson plan development and implementation
- classroom management
- student assessment
<=> all of which should be adapted to students'
> considering student's individual differences and their diversity + motivating students
technological knowledge The technological content knowledge (TCK) that preservice and in-service literacy teachers need to have nowadays: (pp. 67-70)
- be aware of how technology changes the way literacy is taught (> today's students "use different decoding and reading strategies as they follow hyperlink after hyperlink about a specific topic" p. 67)
- Be familiar with the technology standards and performance indicators for teachers (NETS*T)
- know how to use technology
- digital still cameras
- digital video cameras
- videoconferencing cameras (offer connections to experts and classrooms)
- iPods (for using audio books, audio recordings, and podcasts which might enhance literacy instruction)
- innovative educational software:
- productivity-type software
- visual learning tools:
> to create graphic representations for many literacy learning tasks
- story grammar
- character map
- discussion web
- StoryBook Weaver Deluxe
- Kid Pix
digital video editing programs
- Windows Movie Maker
Be familiar with a list of online resources:
- ReadWriteThink (online student tools)
- A to Z Teacher Stuff
- Thinkport > Instructional templates
- WebQuest > Inquiry-based activities
- Online Assessment Tools
- RubiStar > create rubrics to evaluate project-based learning activities
Realize that taking just the one "technology course" is no longer enough.
- Technology should be modeled for instructional and administrative tasks throughout the teacher preparation program
- TPCK modeling experiences should be extended into practicum and student teaching experiences ("hands-on" experiences)
- Preservice teachers should be given multiple opportunities to communicate and reflect on their TPCK experiences (through emails and blogs)
- Technology Mentoring Programs should be provided (one-on-one every week)
<=> "Preparation and professional development experiences for teachers must include opportunities for them to observe, participate, and reflect upon what they will teach, how they will teach it, and how technology might be used to enhance and expand k-6 literacy learning in their classrooms" (p. 80).
Benefits of technology use:
- Hypermedia and hypertext increase student understanding-- hypermedia environments are dynamic and interactive and create a non-linear collection of information (p. 68).
- Students are more motivated and have a greater sense of control over what they can access and read.
- Students' comprehension and ability to create text are enhanced.
- In writing/composition, thanks to word-processing programs, students can now
- focus more on idea generation and organization than on mechanics
- write longer samples
- have a greater variety of word usage
- have more variety of sentence structure
- have more accurate mechanics and spelling
- make more substantial revisions
- respond better to teacher and peer feedback
- understand the writing process better
- have more positive attitudes toward writing (p. 68)
Students' reading skills are enhanced (thanks to electronic/talking books which use hypermedia text that links to word pronunciations, definitions, sentences). Students
- develop a sense of story structure
- build vocabulary
- increase word knowledge
- improve comprehension
- improve in sight-word acquisition
- move more quickly to independent reading levels (thanks to the "point and click" pronunciation support)
- improve motivation level (pp. 68-69)
When using technology, teachers' approaches seem to be more student-centered. Computers help in creating cooperative learning environments: children tend to work together more while using technology to
- write stories
- search the web
- create multimedia presentations (p. 69)
Computers help in creating more social interaction
- discussion forums
- video conferencing
Teachers can use TPCK in the classroom for
- creating a digital story during literature circles (p. 72)
- developing fluency using predictable text (p. 74)
- composing during the writing process with technology (p. 75) + publish compositions (p. 77)
Chapter 4- Leveraging the Development of English TPCK Within the Deictic.(requiring contextual information) Nature of Literacy-- Joan E. Hughes and Cassandra M. Scharber
- E-TPCK = English-TPCK > specific to the English discipline
- General pedagogical knowledge: (p. 87)
- cooperative learning
- human cognitive development
- classroom management techniques
- promoting classroom discourse
- Subject matter knowledge:
- the depth and breadth of knowledge in a content area
- Technological knowledge
- Transforming Teacher Education Through Technology Infusion (p. 90) > Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to use Technology (PT3- began as Ed-U-Tech at the University of Minnesota)
- College-wide commitment to developing content-area specific technology integration skills in preservice teachers. The preservice teacher education program was redesigned to include content-based educational foundations courses that are taken concurrently with content-based methods courses (p. 91).
- Ed-U-Tech's goals: (p. 93)
- faculty development
- curriculum development
- establishing opportunities for preservice teachers to plan for and practice using technology as a support to instruction and receive feedback about those efforts
- generating and disseminating support materials and knowledge about technology use
- preparing teachers to use technology
- Concrete operations into which the goals translate: (p. 93)
- Both students and faculty have access to content-specific hardware and software continually purchased and upgraded
- Both students and faculty can check out technology:
- LCD projectors
- digital cameras
- video cameras
- audio recorders
- Both students and faculty are supported in their use of technology (tech support personnel in comp. lab and library)
- Both faculty and staff are knowledgeable about technology and are continually provided opportunities to be trained and supported to encourage modeling and use of technology in their teaching practices.
- Preservice teachers are expected to incorporate the technology tools learned in the technology foundations course into their lesson plan development and classroom activities in the methods courses
- The English faculty and staff are committed to technology integration and meaningful learning. They provide English content cohorts who engage iteratively (repetitively) in English methods, technology foundations, and practicum experiences in order to provide English teachers authentic teaching and learning experiences.
> "English language arts preparation programs must comprehensively and continually integrate technology throughout coursework and across the duration of the program" (p. 95). Stand-alone technology courses are insufficient.
- (Other activities of Ed-U-Tech project included the development of a website robust with content-area specific technology integration resources, technology training sessions for faculty, the purchase of technology hardware and software, and the sharing of evaluation data with participating faculty to further their research on technology and teaching and learning.)
- Technology Integrationists: Technology integrationists "possess the unique ability to understand, consider, and choose to use technologies only when they uniquely enhance the curriculum, instruction, and students' learning" (Hugues, 2004). To become technology integrationists teachers need to integrate three knowledge areas: content, pedagogical, and technology. (p. 103)
- Strategies that will help more teachers develop TPCK and use it for decision-making include:
- helping preservice and novice teachers become more meta-cognitively aware of their knowledge base (TK, TPK, TCK, TPCK) over time
- written reflections
- concept maps
- video analyses
- portfolios (which include knowledge maps the teachers produced to recognize their knowledge and capture its changing forms over time. For this, they could use concept mapping software: Inspiration,.MindGenius, c-map.
=> encourage life-long learning, goal-setting, teacher research
- creating cognitive conflict within practicing teachers' minds by
- immersing them in new literacy and critical literacy literature (focusing on content knowledge) to recognize the deictic nature of evolving technologies and new literacies (p. 101)
> Research has shown that cognitive dissonance/conflict to be a strategy to raise questions and reflection in learners' minds, which positions learners to possibly break down their strongly held beliefs. (p. 101)
> Preparation programs need to have a consistent evaluation and evolve in a deictic manner to understand if the preparation is providing the necessary skills, knowledge and dispositions for novice teachers to succeed (p. 95).
- Principles of a New Literacies Perspective: (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004)- (Handbook p. 102)
1. The Internet and other ICTs are central technologies for literacy within a global community in an information age.
2. The Internet and other ICTs require new literacies to fully access their potential.
3. New literacies are deictic.
4. The relationship between literacy and technology is transactional.
5. New literacies are multiple in nature.
6. Critical literacies are central to the new literacies.
7. New forms of strategic knowledge are central to the new literacies.
8. Speed counts in important ways within the new literacies.
9. Learning often is socially constructed within new literacies.
10 Teachers become more important, though their role changes, within new literacy classrooms.
> "While we should create situations in which practicing teachers learn about critical literacy perspectives and its importance for literacy development among children, we can correspondingly raise teachers' critical eye toward technology to develop critical technology literacy..." (p. 102).
> Teachers, in turn, must help students "to learn how to think critically about technology and the social issues surrounding its use" (p. 102)
Chapter 5- TPCK: an integrated framework for educating world language teachers-- Marcela van Olphen
The knowledge base of foreign and second language teacher education: Professional Associations
The knowledge that foreign language teachers need to have to integrate technology in thoughtful and pedagogically sound ways into the curriculum:
- The American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL): write standards for students as well as standards for professional preparation.
- National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)
- ACTFL/NCATE Program Standards for the Preparation of Foreign Language Teachers.
The ACTFL/NCATE document is structured around six content standards:
=> These program standards provide a framework for teacher education programs to draw from while outlining what should constitute the knowledge base for foreign and second language teacher candidates.
- Language Linguistics, Comparisons
- Cultures, Literatures, Cross-Disciplinary Concepts
- Language Acquisition Theories and Instructional Practices
- Integration of Standards into Curriculum and Instruction
- Assessment of Languages and Cultures
=> The ACTFL/NCATE professional preparation standards do not have a specific standard that relates to a teacher's understanding of educational technology, Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), or the integration of technology into the curriculum.
(CALL research looks at how technology shapes foreign language educators and assists them in representing content knowledge - pp. 113-114)
- Content Knowledge (CK) in Foreign Language Teacher Education:
- Subject matter knowledge for second language teacher education (Richards, 1998, p.15): It involves a teacher's understanding of
1. the nature of language and language use,
2. the nature of second language learning,
3. approaches to language
- curriculum development,
- testing and evaluation,
- materials development
- Content Knowledge for second language teacher education (Lafayette, 1993)
- language analysis
study of language-specific linguistics:
- second language acquisition
- language proficiency
- an understanding of civilization and culture.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK):
- What teachers know about teaching the target language to empower students to communicate across linguistic and cultural borders
- Wing (1993) contends that it is imperative for teachers to understand the content from the student's perspective as well as to scrutinize precedent and up-to-date teaching and learning practices if they are to advance in their preparation as foreign language teachers.
- => Language teacher education programs should sustain the pedagogical reasoning development of teachers as an ongoing matter
- Richards’ proposed domains of PCK and pedagogical reasoning are:
- theories of teaching
- teaching skills
- pedagogical reasoning
- contextual knowledge
- The aim of these domains is to provide second language teacher education with an agenda that promotes and strengthens the teachers’ engagement in the exploration of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and thinking as they inform their teaching endeavors.
- Freeman & Johnson (1998) raise the awareness for the need of more articulated approaches to bridge content and pedagogical knowledge. They contend that the activity of teaching itself, the teacher who performs it, the contexts in which teaching occurs, and the pedagogy involved must be the core of the knowledge base.
Technological Content Knowledge (TCK):
- => The body of knowledge that teachers have about their target language and its culture and how technology is used to represent this knowledge
- In order to promote curriculum integration and technology-capable students and teachers, the International Society of Technology in Education has put forward “The National Educational Technology Standards” (NETS), a comprehensive document for connecting curriculum and technology.
- Understanding the contributions that Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) can make to the field of foreign language education is essential for the development of TCK among teacher candidates (pp. 113-114).
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK):
- The foundation of good language teaching with technology requires (p. 117)
- an understanding of how linguistic and cultural concepts can be represented using the technology
- educational approaches to language teaching that draw from socio-constructivist philosophies to develop the students’ language and cultural competence
- an awareness of what facilitates or hinders the acquisition of language and the development of language competence and how technology, specifically CALL or computer-mediated communication (CMC), can revamp common problems that students ordinarily face
- an awareness of the students' previous knowledge, and particularly a knowledge of second language acquisition (SLA) and cognitive development theories
- an understanding of how current and emerging technologies can be used to advance present knowledge and to develop new epistemologies and sustain previous ones.
Part III- Integrating TPCK into Teacher Education and Professional Development
Chapter 11- Guiding preservice teachers in developing TPCK-- Margaret L. Niess
- "If we teach today as we taught yesterday, then we rob our children of tomorrow"-- John Dewey (Handbook p. 223)
- If teacher preparation methods continue as they have been, focused on 20th century
=> they will rob the children of tomorrow! (p. 223)
- teaching strategies
- classroom management
- planning for instruction
- assessment of learning
<=> So, new 21st century technologies should be integrated as tools for learning.=> Tomorrow's teachers must be prepared to
=> The Partnership for 21st Century Skills
- unlearn and relearn
- adapt (p. 225)
- Thinking about the thinking involved in TPCK (metacognition) is (Shavelson et al., 2003) (Handbook p. 224)
- declarative > knowing that... knowing what to teach
- procedural > knowing how to teach it
- schematic > knowing why to teach it
- strategic > knowing when and where to teach it
- => TPCK is a way of thinking strategically while involved in
while concurrently considering the multitude of 21st century technologies that have the potential to support student learning (p. 224).
- student needs
- classroom situations
The objective is to integrate technology that effectively guides students in learning. (p. 227) How must preservice preparation programs be arranged to assure that the preservice teachers gain the ways of knowing and thinking involved in TPCK? What experiences and how should experiences be arranged to assure that the preservice teachers develop their TPCK? (p. 226)
- Methods courses should be enhanced to develop TPCK's ways of thinking > Preservice teachers should engage in changing their mindsets and behaviors established from their own personal learning experiences when learning to
for their specific
- student needs
- classroom situations (pp. 226-227)
Preservice teachers should be provided with opportunities to test their developing ways of thinking for teaching with technology (p. 227)..
- understanding student diversity and learning needs in TMCs
- planning and designing learning environments and experiences that meet those needs in TMCs
- developing effective instructional strategies to adequately attend to those needs in TMCs
- identifying effective classroom management strategies to support those needs in TMCs
- assessing the diversity of student learning in TMCs
.1- Understanding students (p. 227)
- Methods courses should help teachers become sensitive to multicultural issues that impact learning > they should communicate with multiculturally diverse students in Technology Mediated Environments (TMEs)
- Methods courses should help teachers understand how students think and interact in TMEs.
- Digital Natives = students of the 21st century who have significantly different experiences with information technologies than their teachers (Prensky, 2001) (Handbook p. 229)
- How the "Digital Natives" learn and understand ideas in a technologically-enhanced context is different from how the preservice teachers learned and understood similar ideas as they were learning without the use of technology (p. 229).
- => So, in order to prepare preservice teachers to develop TPCK strategic thinking strategies, attention now needs to be paid to an additional developmental level that covers getting to know how students think and learn in TMEs > technological developmental level.
- => The student developmental levels preservice teachers need to pay attention to are now:
- physical developmental level
- cognitive developmental level
- cultural developmental level
- personal developmental level
- social developmental level
- technological developmental level (including how students think and learn in TMEs)
- Methods courses should help teachers through observational case studies
- preservice teachers need to be organized in research groups to conduct focused observations and interviews
- preservice teachers then gather and analyze the information from observations and interviews
- preservice teachers then share the results with the intent of identifying similarities and differences in student learning and thinking with technologies as tools for learning
- share what they learned about students at various grade levels
- summarize student development
- think about the impact this comparison might have on their thinking about students' attitudes and capabilities for learning with technologies
- think about the implications for planning lessons
- think about the accommodations needed for the various diversities of the students
- Pp. 230-231 > A lot of questions (that teachers can ask students) are provided on those pages.
2- Planning and designing instruction (p. 231)
- Methods courses should help teachers develop a pedagogical reasoning that integrates what they know about
- the subject
- student learning
- the technologies
- Methods courses should help teachers design lessons in ways that transform the content into a form accessible to the learners (Wilson, S. M., Shulman, L. S., & Richert, A. E., 1987)
TPCK strategic knowledge = the knowledge of
to integrate knowledge of
- student learning
- technology (Ruiz-Primo, Shavelson, Li, & Schultz, 2001)
- Methods courses should help teachers plan and design instruction
- Teachers should be organized in collaborative study groups (p. 232). Each group will
- identify a topic they plan to teach
- identify specific content
- consider a role for technology: identify the technologies that might be useful
- set goals and objectives for instruction (and include technology) (p. 234)
- think about scaffolding instruction: what the students need to know before becoming engaged in this unit so that the focus of the unit remains on learning the subject matter content (while integrating technology) rather than learning about the technology itself (p. 238).
- constantly reflect on the whole process using dynamic tools (that enable them to enter their thoughts and make changes as their thinking evolves, which "allows for the evolutions in their thinking about the unit"- p. 223)
- word processor
- use a backward design approach (Wiggins & McTighe, 2006) > begin with the ends in mind, what they plan for students to do/demonstrate at the conclusion of the unit.
3- Developing effective instructional strategies (p. 238)
- Methods courses should help teachers identify and explore instructional strategies for supporting the learning needs of a diversity of students while integrating technology in the lessons
- Methods courses should help teachers reflect on the effects of particular strategies for integrating technology (pp. 238-240)
- what the strategies afford them to do with technology for effective student learning > Affordances
- how the strategies constrain the integration of technology for effective student learning > Constraints
4- Gaining effective classroom management strategies (p. 240)
- Methods courses should help teachers adopt classroom management strategies "that have potential for guiding students toward a successful learning experience" (p. 240).
5- Assessing student learning with technology (p. 245)
Chapter 12- TPCK in in-service education: assisting experienced teachers' "planned improvisations"-- Judith B. Harris
- "To an experienced educator, teaching is much like jazz performance: a well-practiced fusion of
- careful, creative planning and
- spontaneous improvisation" (p. 251)
- Technology integration: It is the "pervasive and productive use of educational technologies for purposes of curriculum-based learning and teaching" (p. 252).
- "... well-developed TPCK may be positively correlated with general teaching expertise" (p. 256).
- TPCK structure combinations: imitate, assimilate, innovate (p. 262)
- => activity structures/types approach to TPCK-focused professional development for experienced teachers:
- knowledge-building activities (p. 263)
- knowledge expression activities (p. 264)
- divergent knowledge expression activities (p. 264)
Chapter 13- Advancing TPCK through collaborations across educational associations-- Glen Bull, Lynn Bell, and Tom Hammond
- Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) for Educators
- What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge?
- TPACK Reference Library
- Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools: Fall 2008...pdf
- TPCK Blog
- Integrating Technology in the Classroom- By Nada Salem Abisamra
- Faculty Technology Mentoring Programs: Major Trends in the Literature
- Developing Technology Expertise in a School of Education
- Technology Education Critical for New Teachers; The Gatekeepers of a New Generation
- Content area specific technology integration: a model for educating teachers
- TPACK - theory into practice- By Louis Heap (New Zealand )- October 10, 2009
- Instructional Planning Activity Types as Vehicles for Curriculum-Based TPACK Development- Judi Harris & Mark Hofer
- Strategies for teacher professional development on TPACK
- No Teacher Left Behind: How to Teach with Technology
- The Natural Approach: Technology in the Second Language Classroom by Terrence Mannetter, Ph.D.
- Life in Classrooms (1968)- Philip Jackson
- "Philip Jackson reported the results of one of the first studies that attempted to describe and understand the mental constructs and processes that underlie teacher behavior. In representing the full complexity of the teacher’s task, Jackson made conceptual distinctions that fit the teacher’s frame of reference—for instance, the preactive and the interactive stages of teaching—and drew attention to the importance of describing the thought processes and planning strategies of teachers (the so-called “hidden side of teaching”) in an attempt to develop a more complete understanding of classroom processes. Jackson’s pioneering work led to a flurry of research studies that focused attention on teachers thinking and decision making processes (Clark and Peterson, 1986), a line of research that hopes to “understand and explain how and why the observable activities of teacher’s professional lives take on the forms and functions they do” (p. 255). A major goal of this research was to understand the relationships between two key domains: teacher thought processes; and teachers’ actions and their observable effects" (TPCK Handbook, p. 23)
- Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge- Mishra & Koehler, 2006
- "TPCK is the basis of good teaching with technology and requires an understanding of
- the representation of concepts using technologies;
- pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content;
- knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face;
- knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and
- knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones." (p. 1029)
- Cox, S. (2008). A conceptual analysis of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Doctoral Dissertation, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
- "This dissertation reports the results of a conceptual analysis of the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework, particularly its component constructs of technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), and TPACK (the central component of the framework listed earlier). First, a technical use analysis reveals how existing research has defined and exemplified the constructs. Next, interviews with leading TPACK researchers further refine the constructs. The dissertation then reports cases that illustrate each of the constructs and the boundaries between them. The conceptual analysis results in an elaborated model of the TPACK framework, focusing on the essential features of each construct to facilitate classification of future examples. The analysis also reveals that TCK, TPK, and TPACK do appear to be distinct constructs. The boundaries among constructs are elaborated through a discussion of the sliding nature of the framework and the nature of the instructional strategies that are enacted."
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