1- IDENTIFY and SUMMARIZE briefly:1.1- IDENTIFY the TEXT:A- Nature: What Type of text is this? (Form of discourse)a- Narrative:1- Novel: historical, sociological, psychological, philosophical, dramatic, adventure, detective, romance, (auto) biographical, realistic, fictional (science fiction) # factual, sentimental ......2- Short story: one subject, few characters, everything goes quickly.3- Tale: fairy tale, fable (animals/moral message)b- Descriptive (an account of an event/situation/experience that provides a lot of details so that people can imagine what it is like)c- Explicative/Expository (explain and analyze logically, in detail/ give information)
d- Argumentative/Persuasive (give arguments to persuade)
What kind of appeal is used?
·Appeal to Emotions (pathos)--move the passions, make the end seem desirable.
·Appeal to Ethics (Ethos)--impress with one's sound sense/ knowledge of psychology, high moral character, benevolence.
·Appeal to Reason/Logic (logos)--deductive/inductive reasoning.
B- Origin: Where is it taken from?
a- which book? (excerpt, passage, extract from a book)
b- which newspaper? (article)
c- which magazine?
d- which theatre play? speech? dissertation? treatise (one subject)? .............
1.2- SUMMARIZE the TEXT briefly:
Who? (characters: age, physical appearance, clothes..../ occupation...)
When? (time, day, month, year, century, .............)
Where? (country, city, village, place, house......)
What? (the plot: exposition, complication, climax, resolution)
(Why? How? )
2- ANALYZE the TEXT: Style + Content
a- Diction / Tone: Clear/crisp, heavy/flowing, general/specific, abstract/concrete, formal/informal, emotive (connotative)/ referential (denotative), affected, stretched, specialized, strained, sustained/unstrained, easy, not difficult, simple, familiar, colloquial, popular, vulgar, slang, Humorous, comic, ironical, touching, moving, pathetic, tragic, lyric, epic...….. Does it suit subject matter, purpose, occasion, audience?
b- Coherence devices:
·Pronouns, demonstrative adj., conjunctions, … Are they used appropriately? Any repetition of key words?
·Repeated words and phrases: What kind? what for? what do they imply, indicate, express?
·Links/Joining words: used adequately? varied? rich? Do they aid coherence?
c- Grammar: Tenses:Are they respected?
Which tense is mainly used? pres./past/fut./cont./perfect...?) What does it indicate?
·Statement (declarative), question (interrogative), command (imperative), and exclamation.
e- Figures of Speech: Schemes (word order) & Tropes (meaning)
·Schemes: parallelism, antithesis, asyndeton, alliteration, anaphora, climax, chiasmus...
·Tropes: simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, litotes, rhetorical question, irony, onomatopoeia, oxymoron…
What are they used for?
·Logical pattern, ideas well tied together, proportioned parts
·Thesis statement: clear? Concise? Precise? Includes main ideas?
·Topic sentences, supporting sentences…. Well used? One idea in each paragraph? Does each paragraph develop a separate thought? Do the paragraph become integral parts of the whole?
2.2- CONTENT: (Analysis! Not just a Summary!)
A- Who is the narrator? Different from the author?
B- What does he/she relate/describe/talk about/explain?
C- Is he/she involved in the story? Objective/subjective? Omniscient? Limited omniscient?
D- What is his/her relation to the world and characters he/she describes?
E- What do the characters represent ? What is their importance in the story?
-What are their relationships to one another?
-What is the world or social group they belong to?
-Major character? Protagonist? Character foil? Minor characters? Antagonists?
F- Any symbols used? What are they?
G- Theme: (it shows the preoccupations of the narrator)
1- The 4 Elements: Air, Water, Fire, Earth
2- The 5 Senses: Sight, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Touch
3- Activity: Motion/Immobility, passivity, inertia
4- Appreciation: Positive/Negative (happy, sad, nostalgic, homesick....)
H- What is the aim of the narrator? How did he/she proceed to reach it? Who is the text aimed at? Any moral lesson?What is the message? How is it conveyed to the reader? (explicit/implicit?)
3- ASSESS: Give your Opinion
3.1- Are the ideas well expressed?
3.2- Did you learn anything from this text?
3.3- Are you For/Against? Why?
3.4- Find another title for the text.
3.5- Do you have anything to add? Advice? Question? General comment?
ANYTHING to ADD?
COMMENTARY ON A TEXT
·Account of an important/interesting episode
·Historical document/ political discourse/ plea in defense of…
·Dramatic = series of exciting events
·Tale = imaginary story involving magic/adventure
·It deals with the question of
·It aims at showing/denouncing…
·Writer of great narrative power
·The writer, through the narrators words, wants to show…. reveals/discloses…
·He focuses on/ emphasizes/highlights… the elements, events, incident…
·He plays with the paradoxes between… opposes the elements of… brings out the problem/ the debatable question of/ the burning issue of…
·He raises the eternal/ new question of…. Through the problems the characters are living/facing/going through…
·He implies through these words/ this quotation… that…
·The facts prove/disprove the writer's ideas
·As far as I'm concerned…
·I do strongly support… I totally disagree…
·It/he arouses in me the feelings of…
·I cannot but (dis)approve of/(dis)agree with/ feel moved by/ remain indifferent to…